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England and Wales Court of Appeal (Civil Division) Decisions
You are here: BAILII >> Databases >> England and Wales Court of Appeal (Civil Division) Decisions >> Jones v Mordue & Anor  EWCA Civ 1243 (03 December 2015)
Cite as:  1 WLR 2682,  1 P &CR 12,  EWCA Civ 1243,  JPL 476,  WLR 2682
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ON APPEAL FROM THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE
QUEENS BENCH DIVISION, PLANNING COURT
MR JOHN HOWELL QC
Strand, London, WC2A 2LL
B e f o r e :
LORD JUSTICE FLOYD
LORD JUSTICE SALES
|- and -||Appellant|
|Jane Margaret Mordue|
|- and -||First Respondent|
|Secretary of State for Communities|
|and Local Government||Second Respondent|
|- and -|
|South Northamptonshire Council||Third Respondent|
Mr Juan Lopez (instructed by Direct Access) for the First Respondent
The 2nd Respondent did not appear and was not represented
The 3rd Respondent did not appear and was not represented
Hearing date: 28 October 2015
Crown Copyright ©
Lord Justice Sales:
"The basis for the Deputy Judge's central conclusion in paragraph 48 of his judgment appears to be the short extract from paragraph 29 of my judgment in East Northamptonshire which he cited in paragraph 43 of his judgment. It is strongly arguable that paragraph 29 of East Northamptonshire should be read as a whole, in the context of the preceding paragraphs in the judgment referred to in the Appellant's Skeleton Argument; and if that is done, that it was clear from the Inspector's reasoning in his decision in East Northamptonshire that he had not given 'considerable importance and weight' to the 'detrimental effect' of the turbine array upon the setting of a group of designated heritage assets which he had found to have 'archaeological, architectural, artist and historic significance of the highest magnitude.'"
The statutory and policy framework
"If regard is to be had to the development plan for the purpose of any determination to be made under the planning Acts the determination must be made in accordance with the plan unless material considerations indicate otherwise."
"When considering applications for alterations or extensions to buildings of special architectural or historical interest which constitute development the council will have special regard to the desirability of securing their retention, restoration, maintenance and continued use. Demolition or partial demolition of listed buildings will not be permitted. The council will also seek to preserve and enhance the setting of listed buildings by control over the design of new development in their vicinity, the use of adjoining land and, where appropriate, by the preservation of trees and landscape features."
"In considering whether to grant planning permission for development which affects a listed building or its setting, the local planning authority or, as the case may be, the Secretary of State shall have special regard to the desirability of preserving the building or its setting or any features of special architectural or historic interest which it possesses."
"131. In determining planning applications, local planning authorities should take account of:
? the desirability of sustaining and enhancing the significance of heritage assets and putting them to viable uses consistent with their conservation;
? the positive contribution that conservation of heritage assets can make to sustainable communities including their economic vitality; and
? the desirability of new development making a positive contribution to local character and distinctiveness.
132. When considering the impact of a proposed development on the significance of a designated heritage asset, great weight should be given to the asset's conservation. The more important the asset, the greater the weight should be. Significance can be harmed or lost through alteration or destruction of the heritage asset or development within its setting. As heritage assets are irreplaceable, any harm or loss should require clear and convincing justification. Substantial harm to or loss of a grade II listed building, park or garden should be exceptional. Substantial harm to or loss of designated heritage assets of the highest significance, notably scheduled monuments, protected wreck sites, battlefields, grade I and II* listed buildings, grade I and II* registered parks and gardens, and World Heritage Sites, should be wholly exceptional.
133. Where a proposed development will lead to substantial harm to or total loss of significance of a designated heritage asset, local planning authorities should refuse consent, unless it can be demonstrated that the substantial harm or loss is necessary to achieve substantial public benefits that outweigh that harm or loss, or all of the following apply:
? the nature of the heritage asset prevents all reasonable uses of the site; and
? no viable use of the heritage asset itself can be found in the medium term through appropriate marketing that will enable its conservation; and
? conservation by grant-funding or some form of charitable or public ownership is demonstrably not possible; and
? the harm or loss is outweighed by the benefit of bringing the site back into use.
134. Where a development proposal will lead to less than substantial harm to the significance of a designated heritage asset, this harm should be weighed against the public benefits of the proposal, including securing its optimum viable use."
The decision of the Inspector
"3. The main issues are; first, the effect of the erection of the turbine on the character of the landscape, particularly when seen from footpaths and viewpoints in the area; second, the effect of the development on heritage assets; third, whether the development would cause any other harm; and fourth, whether the harm caused is outweighed by the environmental benefits of the renewable energy scheme."
"10. The nearest non-residential heritage asset to the location of the proposed turbine is the Church of St Mary in Wappenham, a Grade II* listed building. The immediate setting of the Church is its churchyard, an intimate area confined by buildings and vegetation. It is unlikely that the turbine would be visible from within the churchyard. The Church is at the heart of the village and it is a prominent feature particularly from the north within the village. The turbine would be more than 1 km from the church and it is unlikely that it would be visible in the background in these village views of the church. The tower of the Church is visible from outside the village from some directions and it is possible that the tower and the turbine would be seen in the same views. However, given the distance between them the turbine would not compete with, or detract from, the landmark feature that is the Church tower. Nevertheless, the turbine would be a feature in the countryside setting of the Church and it would cause harm to this setting, though the harm would be less than substantial.
11. The Manor, a dwelling that is a Grade II* listed building, is situated close to the Church of St Mary in Wappenham. It is within the tight core of mainly historic development around the Church and the effect of the turbine on its setting would be negligible. The same conclusion can be reached for other listed buildings within the village. Further afield is the Church of St Botolph at Slapston, a Grade I listed building. This Church is over 2 kms from the location of the proposed turbine and, though it is located on slightly elevated ground, views towards the turbine from its immediate surroundings would be filtered by a belt of trees to the south-west. It is possible even that the turbine would not be visible from the surroundings of the Church and, despite its high sensitivity, the potential harm to its setting can only be regarded to be negligible. The same conclusion can be reached for other listed buildings in the vicinity of the Church, such as Manor Farm and an associated barn.
12. The aforementioned listed buildings are all more than 1 km from the location of the proposed turbine and no other heritage asset, listed building or registered park and garden, would be any closer. The turbine would not cause harm, greater than negligible, to the setting of any of these other heritage assets.
13. The proposed turbine would harm the setting of the Church of St Mary but the harm would be less than substantial. The turbine would have a negligible harmful effect on the settings of other heritage assets in the area. The cumulative harm to the settings of heritage assets is less than substantial. Nevertheless, the proposed development is in conflict with saved LP policy EV12."
"20. The landscape was formed by the most recent ice age and has been altered by man for farming and other purposes. These activities, such as an increasing reliance on motorised transport, have contributed to changes in the global climate that are having a detrimental effect on, amongst other things, the landscape. The landscape of South Northamptonshire is not immune from the effects of climate change. Flooding is a serious issue and will have affected South Northamptonshire as it has to devastating effect elsewhere in the country. This one effect of climate change causes erosion of the landscape and alters how the landscape can be farmed and used. It also causes hardship for those who suffer the direct consequences of climate change; flooding of their homes and businesses.
21. A suggested condition would require the removal of the wind turbine within twenty-five years after it is brought into operation. Twenty-five years is a fraction of the history of the landscape of South Northamptonshire and if the landscape is not to suffer serious erosion in the long-term future then consideration must be given to accepting short-term harm to the character of the landscape. A low carbon future is at the heart of Government policy that seeks to meet the challenge of climate change, as set out in the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF). In paragraph 93 it is stated that "Planning plays a key role in helping shape places to secure radical reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, minimising vulnerability and providing resilience to the impacts of climate change, and supporting the delivery of renewable and low carbon energy and associated infrastructure".
22. The candidate turbine, an Enercon E53, is rated at 0.8 MW but would be operated to produce no more than 0.5 MW. It would be de-rated because supply to the National Grid of over 0.5 MW would require upgrading about 4 kms of electricity transmission lines and this would be financially prohibitive. Furthermore, de-rating a 0.8 MW turbine would produce a consistent output close to the limit of 0.5 MW whereas a 0.5 MW turbine could not produce such a consistent output, and an Enercon 0.5 MW turbine is not materially smaller than their 0.8 MW turbine. The specification of an Enercon E53 turbine maximises the potential for electricity generation at Poplars Farm within the limit set by existing transmission lines. The development would make a small contribution to meeting the effects of climate change, an objective of the NPPF and of National Policy Statements."
"23. Paragraph 134 of the NPPF states that "Where a development proposal would lead to less than substantial harm to the significance of a heritage asset, this harm should be weighed against the public benefits of the proposal…". The public benefits of the proposal must also be weighed against public opposition to the proposal. In this regard over half of households in Wappenham have signed a petition against the turbine and some residents have suggested that the Localism Act 2011 and Ministerial Statements made in 2013 indicate that local opinion should be given considerable weight. Some have also pointed to paragraph 5 of Planning Practice Guidance for Renewable Energy which states that "…all communities have a responsibility to help increase the use and supply of green energy, but this does not mean that the need for renewable energy automatically overrides environmental protections and the planning concerns of local communities". It is worth noting, with regard to responsibility, that some residents of the village have written in support of the proposed development of a wind turbine at Poplars Farm.
24. Paragraph 98 of the NPPF states that local planning authorities should "…not require applicants for energy development to demonstrate the overall need for renewable or low carbon energy…". There is no quota for the production of renewable energy and the proposed development would contribute to meeting the effects of climate change. The significant adverse effect of the development on the character of the landscape is limited to a small area and no heritage asset in the area would suffer substantial harm. In this case, the harm that would be caused by the development is outweighed by its environmental benefits.
25. Saved LP policies G3, EV1 and EV12 are part of the development plan for the area. With regard to Section 38(6) of the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004, material considerations in this case, the environmental benefits of the renewable energy development, indicate that determination of this appeal must be made other than in accordance with the development plan."
"Whatever may be the position in any other legislative context, under the planning legislation, when it comes to deciding in any particular case whether the reasons given are deficient, the question is not to be answered in vacuo. The alleged deficiency will only afford a ground for quashing the decision if the court is satisfied that the interests of the applicant have been substantially prejudiced by it. This reinforces the view I have already expressed that the adequacy of reasons is not to be judged by reference to some abstract standard. There are in truth not two separate questions: (1) were the reasons adequate? (2) if not, were the interests of the applicant substantially prejudiced thereby? The single indivisible question, in my opinion, which the court must ask itself whenever a planning decision is challenged on the ground of a failure to give reasons is whether the interests of the applicant have been substantially prejudiced by the deficiency of the reasons given. Here again, I disclaim any intention to put a gloss on the statutory provisions by attempting to define or delimit the circumstances in which deficiency of reasons will be capable of causing substantial prejudice, but I should expect that normally such prejudice will arise from one of three causes. First, there will be substantial prejudice to a developer whose application for permission has been refused or to an opponent of development when permission has been granted where the reasons for the decision are so inadequately or obscurely expressed as to raise a substantial doubt whether the decision was taken within the powers of the Act. Secondly, a developer whose application for permission is refused may be substantially prejudiced where the planning considerations on which the decision is based are not explained sufficiently clearly to enable him reasonably to assess the prospects of succeeding in an application for some alternative form of development. Thirdly, an opponent of development, whether the local planning authority or some unofficial body like Save, may be substantially prejudiced by a decision to grant permission in which the planning considerations on which the decision is based, particularly if they relate to planning policy, are not explained sufficiently clearly to indicate what, if any, impact they may have in relation to the decision of future applications.
Here again, I regret to find myself in disagreement with Woolf L.J. who said, 60 P. & C.R. 539, 557:
"Once it is accepted that the reasoning is not adequate, then in a case of this sort it seems to me that, apart from the exceptional case where it can be said with confidence that the inadequacy in the reasons given could not conceal a flaw in the decision-making process, it is not possible to say that a party who is entitled to apply to the court under section 245 has not been substantially prejudiced."
The flaw in this reasoning, it seems to me, is that it assumes an abstract standard of adequacy determined by the court and then asserts, in effect, that a failure by the decision-maker to attain that standard will give rise to a presumption of substantial prejudice which can only be rebutted if the court is satisfied that the inadequacy " could not conceal a flaw in the decision-making process." But this reverses the burden of proof which the statute places on the applicant to satisfy the court that he has been substantially prejudiced by the failure to give reasons. When the complaint is not of an absence of reasons but of the inadequacy of the reasons given, I do not see how that burden can be discharged in the way that Woolf L.J. suggests unless the applicant satisfies the court that the shortcoming in the stated reasons is of such a nature that it may well conceal a flaw in the reasoning of a kind which would have laid the decision open to challenge under the other limb of section 245. If it was necessary to the decision to resolve an issue of law and the reasons do not disclose how the issue was resolved, that will suffice. If the decision depended on a disputed issue of fact and the reasons do not show how that issue was decided, that may suffice. But in the absence of any such defined issue of law or fact left unresolved and when the decision was essentially an exercise of discretion, I think that it is for the applicant to satisfy the court that the lacuna in the stated reasons is such as to raise a substantial doubt as to whether the decision was based on relevant grounds and was otherwise free from any flaw in the decision-making process which would afford a ground for quashing the decision."
"The reasons for a decision must be intelligible and they must be adequate. They must enable the reader to understand why the matter was decided as it was and what conclusions were reached on the "principal important controversial issues", disclosing how any issue of law or fact was resolved. Reasons can be briefly stated, the degree of particularity required depending entirely on the nature of the issues falling for decision. The reasoning must not give rise to a substantial doubt as to whether the decision-maker erred in law, for example by misunderstanding some relevant policy or some other important matter or by failing to reach a rational decision on relevant grounds. But such adverse inference will not readily be drawn. The reasons need refer only to the main issues in the dispute, not to every material consideration. They should enable disappointed developers to assess their prospects of obtaining some alternative development permission, or, as the case may be, their unsuccessful opponents to understand how the policy or approach underlying the grant of permission may impact upon future such applications. Decision letters must be read in a straightforward manner, recognising that they are addressed to parties well aware of the issues involved and the arguments advanced. A reasons challenge will only succeed if the party aggrieved can satisfy the court that he has genuinely been substantially prejudiced by the failure to provide an adequately reasoned decision."
"For these reasons, I agree with Lang J's conclusion that Parliament's intention in enacting section 66(1) was that decision-makers should give "considerable importance and weight" to the desirability of preserving the setting of listed buildings when carrying out the balancing exercise. I also agree with her conclusion that the inspector did not give considerable importance and weight to this factor when carrying out the balancing exercise in this decision. He appears to have treated the less than substantial harm to the setting of the listed buildings, including Lyveden New Bield, as a less than substantial objection to the grant of planning permission. The second defendant's skeleton argument effectively conceded as much in contending that the weight to be given to this factor was, subject only to irrationality, entirely a matter for the inspector's planning judgment. In his oral submissions Mr Nardell contended that the inspector had given considerable weight to this factor, but he was unable to point to any particular passage in the decision letter which supported this contention, and there is a marked contrast between the "significant weight" which the inspector expressly gave in para 85 of the decision letter to the renewable energy considerations in favour of the proposal having regard to the policy advice in PPS22, and the manner in which he approached the section 66(1) duty. It is true that the inspector set out the duty in para 17 of the decision letter, but at no stage in the decision letter did he expressly acknowledge the need, if he found that there would be harm to the setting of the many listed buildings, to give considerable weight to the desirability of preserving the setting of those buildings. This is a fatal flaw in the decision even if grounds 2 and 3 are not made out."
Lord Justice Floyd:
Lord Justice Richards: