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England and Wales High Court (Chancery Division) Decisions
You are here: BAILII >> Databases >> England and Wales High Court (Chancery Division) Decisions >> Dramatico Entertainment Ltd & Ors v British Sky Broadcasting Ltd & Ors  EWHC 268 (Ch) (20 February 2012)
Cite as:  RPC 27,  ECDR 14,  3 CMLR 14,  Bus LR D24,  EWHC 268 (Ch)
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B e f o r e :
| DRAMATICO ENTERTAINMENT LIMITED
EMI RECORDS LIMITED
MERCURY RECORDS LIMITED
ROUGH TRADE RECORDS LIMITED
SONY MUSIC ENTERTAINMENT UK LIMITED
VIRGIN RECORDS LIMITED
WARNER MUSIC UK LIMITED
679 RECORDINGS LIMITED
|- and -
|BRITISH SKY BROADCASTING LIMITED
BRITISH TELECOMMUNICATIONS PLC
EVERYTHING EVERYWHERE LIMITED
TALKTALK TELECOM GROUP PLC
TELEFÓNICA UK LIMITED
VIRGIN MEDIA LIMITED
The Defendants did not appear and were not represented
Hearing date: 9 February 2012
Crown Copyright ©
MR JUSTICE ARNOLD :
|The absence of the operators and users of TPB||9-15|
|The Claimants' rights||16-18|
|WIPO Copyright Treaty||31-32|
|WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty||33|
|Information Society Directive||34-36|
|Domestic Implementation of the Information Society Directive||37|
|The 1988 Act||38|
|Infringement by users of TPB||39-71|
|Communication to the public||44-71|
|Infringement by the operators of TPB||72-83|
|The nature of the relationship||75-76|
|The means used to infringe||77|
|Inevitability of infringement||78|
|Degree of control||79|
|Steps to prevent infringement||80|
"In respect of its residential fixed line Sky Broadband customers to whose service the system known as Mohawk is applied, the Respondent shall within 7 working days adopt the following technical means to block or attempt to block access by its customers to the website currently known as Newzbin2 and currently accessible at www.newzbin.com, its domains and sub-domains and including payments.newzbin.com and any other IP address or URL whose sole or predominant purpose is to enable or facilitate access to the Newzbin2 website. The technology to be adopted is:
(i) IP blocking in respect of each and every IP address from which the said website operates and which is:
(a) notified in writing to the Respondent by the Applicants or their agents; and
(b) in respect of which the Applicants or their agents notify the Respondent that the server with the notified IP address blocking does not also host a site that is not part of the Newzbin2 website.
(ii) IP address re-routing in respect of all IP addresses that provides access to each and every URL available URL available from the said website and its domains and sub-domains and which URL is notified in writing to the Respondent by the Applicants or their agents; and
(iii) URL blocking in respect of each and every URL available from the said website and its domains and sub-domains and which is notified in writing to the Respondent by the Applicants or their agents."
"1. In respect of its customers to whose internet access service the system known as SIG (Service Inspection Gateway) is applied whether optionally or otherwise, the Respondent shall within 10 working days adopt the following technical means to block or attempt to block access to the website currently known as Newzbin2 and currently accessible at www.newzbin.com and/or www.newzbin2.es, its domains and sub-domains and including payments.newzbin.com and any other URL the sole or predominant purpose of which is to enable or facilitate access to the Newzbin2 website. The technical means to be adopted is:
URL blocking in respect of each and every URL from which the said website (and its domains and sub-domains which are notified in writing to the Respondent by the Applicants or their agents) operates.
2. For the avoidance of any doubt, paragraph 1 is complied with if the Respondent uses the system known as SIG.
3. In respect of its customers to whose internet access service the system known as blackholing is applied, the Respondent shall within 10 working days adopt the following technical means to block or attempt to block access to any IP address the sole or predominant purpose of which is to enable or facilitate access to the Newzbin2 website. The technical means to be adopted is:
IP blocking in respect of each and every IP address from which the said website operates and which is:
(a) notified in writing to the Respondent by the Applicants or their agents; and
(b) in respect of which the Applicants or their agents notify the Respondent that the server with the notified IP address does not also host a site that is not part of the Newzbin2 website.
4. For the avoidance of any doubt, paragraph 3 is complied with if the Respondent uses the system known as blackholing."
The absence of the operators and users of TPB
"The District Court considers on that as follows. The imposing of the claimed order meets the conditions of due process. After all, the measure is imposed after a prior, fair and impartial procedure, i.e. the present proceedings. Contrary to what Ziggo and XS4ALL argue, it is not required that all its subscribers are parties to the proceedings or are heard. It provides that 'the person or persons concerned' must be heard. In a case like the present one, in which an order is claimed against intermediaries, such intermediaries can be considered to be the persons concerned in the sense of this provision. Said intermediaries have been heard. Any different interpretation would render the regulation for orders against intermediaries which the European legislator has implemented with the Enforcement Directive meaningless. It is inherent in such regulation that an order can be imposed upon inter alia internet providers to cease their services in proceedings to which the alleged infringer is not, at least not necessarily a party and so is not heard in it. One of the reasons for implementing such an option is precisely, after all, the situation that the alleged infringer cannot be sued, for instance because his identity is not known (see Memorandum, following the report, Parliamentary Documents II 2005-2006, 30 392, no. 6, p. 10 and 11)."
"Only torrent files are saved at the server. That means no copyrighted and/or illegal material are stored by us. It is therefore not possible to hold the people behind The Pirate Bay responsible for the material that is being spread using the tracker. Any complaints from copyright and/or lobby organisations will be ridiculed and published at the site."
True to their word, the "legal threats" page of the website contains links to copies of a series of cease and desist letters sent by right owners together with the operators' responses, which tend to the profane. The page ends:
"No action (except ridiculing the senders) has been taken by us because of these. :-)
Nice graphs for the law firms who don't get the hint above:
(we used to have a nice graph here, but it's simpler to just say: 0 torrents has been removed, and 0 torrents will ever be removed.)"
There is more evidence of this kind.
The Claimants' rights
|"The House" by Katie Melua||Dramatic Entertainment Ltd|
|"It's Not Me, It's You" by Lily Allen||EMI Records Ltd|
|"Last Night On Earth" by Noah & The Whale||Mercury Records Ltd|
|"Lights" by Ellie Goulding||Polydor Ltd|
|"Valhalla Dancehall" by British Sea Power||Rough Trade Records Ltd|
|"Everybody Wants To Be On TV" by Scouting For Girls||Sony Music Entertainment UK Ltd|
|"What Did You Expect From The Vaccines?" by The Vaccines||Sony Music Entertainment UK Ltd|
|"Hold Me Down" by You Me At Six||Virgin Records Ltd|
|"Seasons Of My Soul" by Rumer||Warner Music UK Ltd|
|"The Defamation of Strickland Banks" by Plan B||679 Recordings Ltd|
"65. Peer to peer technologies are in continuing development. Since the successful prosecution of a previous service, Limewire, in 2010 Bittorrent has emerged as the dominant P2P protocol. P2P services each differ from one another in many technical details, but they all share certain basic elements:
(a) The user downloads and installs on his or her computer a piece of software, for example µTorrent (also known as uTorrent). This software is easily found using an internet search engine and is downloaded for free without any personal identification required.
(b) Once the software is installed on a computer, whenever that computer connects to the Internet it becomes part of a P2P network or system consisting of many other computers using the same software. P2P software often installs itself so that it runs in the background whenever the computer is started.
(c) A user locates files for download in different places depending on the P2P technology in use. Bittorrent users may use The Pirate Bay because it is simple to search and find music, video, games and software.
(d) Once a user is a participant in a P2P network, he or she can download files hosted and being made available by other users of the P2P network. At the same time the user's computer acts as an uploader, making the files that it has locally available to others. The files are not stored or hosted on a central server. Instead, each computer that is part of the network can act as a mini-server from which other P2P users on the network can download files.
(e) P2P technology distributes large data files by breaking them up into small pieces (chunks) and sends them over the Internet to the requesting user. The P2P software may request chunks of the file from different members of the P2P network. When all the data is received by the user's computer, the file is reassembled as a whole.
(f) Because of their organisation, where users in a P2P network will generally act both as a client and a server (i.e. uploader as well as downloader), each participant provides resources to the network such as bandwidth, storage space and computing power, thereby increasing capacity as the network grows. P2P networks scale well as they grow in size and are resilient where there is no central component.
66. When an uploader using an ISP's Internet service chooses to share a copyright work stored on his or her computer such as a sound recording or film in the form of a digital file and connects to a P2P service using an ISP's Internet service, he or she makes that file publicly available to substantial numbers of other P2P users who are able to search for the file and, on a request made automatically by one PC to another, transfer and share further copies of that file over the Internet.
Sharing a file for the first time
68. In the Bittorrent system, when a user has a new file to share with other peers (i.e. no other copies already exist in P2P networks) they first need to make available details relating to that file so that others can find it.
69. They first select two related entities that will facilitate P2P distribution of the new file – the 'tracker' that will co-ordinate the distribution of the file among the peers and the torrent site itself where the user will publish the information necessary to share the file.
70. The tracker is commonly needed because, during the sharing process, the identity of the computers which can provide pieces that make up the file contents change regularly as other users acquire the content and make it available (and others may become unavailable).
71. The tracker monitors the computers that have all or some of the pieces available for download and makes that information available to any user's Bittorrent client when it commences the download process.
72. The user then creates, typically with a piece of software, a torrent file that provides all the information necessary for others to download the shared file using P2P software. The torrent file is a small text file. It provides a set of instructions to the Bittorrent client installed on a user's computer. The torrent file does not itself contain any of the content to which it relates. The Torrent file contains the file list, file sizes and hash values that the Bittorrent software assigns to the files to, in effect, uniquely identify the content. The hash value is a reference code comprising a string of letters and numbers, which is used to identify each piece of the content to be shared. This enables the tracker to recognise pieces of the content file as they are shared and is intended to ensure that the content files are correctly downloaded and unmodified.
73. The user uploads that torrent file to the torrent site. The user then runs their P2P client software on the machine containing the complete file to be shared – a process known as providing the seed, or seeding.
74. The P2P client software then interacts with the torrent site and associated tracker to allow others to find and share that new file.
Downloading and sharing a file that is already available
75. A computer user would typically download and share a file using Bittorrent P2P in the following manner:
(a) Identify the file they wish to download – either by using a web browser and search engine to find a site hosting torrent files, or alternatively going directly to a known dedicated torrent website and browsing its contents.
(b) Retrieve and open the torrent file associated with that file using the Bittorrent client software running on their computer.
(c) The Bittorrent client software uses the information in that torrent file to communicate with the tracker server that identifies all users ('peers') who are able to share the file.
(d) Computers that are online, running P2P software and are able to share the file, report back regularly to the tracker to let it know they can provide (pieces of) the file to other peers.
(e) The tracker server links peers together and each peer then sends pieces of the file to the user's computer where the P2P client software receives them and reassembles them into the complete file.
76. Often, through the course of downloading a single file, one peer will connect to hundreds of others. Therefore, unlike other systems (where high demand for a particular content file may slow the download process), where demand for a specific file via Bittorrent is high, the more efficient the download performance for all users.
77. A Bittorrent user that has a complete file available for upload is called a 'Seeder' and their file copy is called a 'Seed'. A user that is downloading, but does not yet have the complete file, is called a Leecher.
78. The community of Bittorrent computers sharing a file at any time is called a Swarm. The size and membership of a swarm will change over time as computers come and go."
"The Pirate Bay is the worlds largest bittorrent tracker. Bittorrent is a filesharing protocol that in reliable way enables big and fast file transfers.
This is an open tracker, where anyone can download torrent files. To be able to upload torrent files, write comments and personal messages one must register at the site. This is of course free."
(1) The expression 'literary and artistic works' shall include every production in the literary, scientific and artistic domain, whatever may be the mode or form of its expression, such as books, pamphlets and other writings; lectures, addresses, sermons and other works of the same nature; dramatic or dramatico-musical works; choreographic works and entertainments in dumb show; musical compositions with or without words; cinematographic works to which are assimilated works expressed by a process analogous to cinematography; works of drawing, painting, architecture, sculpture, engraving and lithography; photographic works to which are assimilated works expressed by a process analogous to photography; works of applied art; illustrations, maps, plans, sketches and three-dimensional works relative to geography, topography, architecture or science.
(1) Authors of literary and artistic works shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing:
(i) the broadcasting of their works or the communication thereof to the public by any other means of wireless diffusion of signs, sounds or images;
(ii) any communication to the public by wire or by rebroadcasting of the broadcast of the work, when this communication is made by an organization other than the original one;
(iii) the public communication by loudspeaker or any other analogous instrument transmitting, by signs, sounds or images, the broadcast of the work.
Relation to the Berne Convention
(1) This Treaty is a special agreement within the meaning of Article 20 of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, as regards Contracting Parties that are countries of the Union established by that Convention. This Treaty shall not have any connection with treaties other than the Berne Convention, nor shall it prejudice any rights and obligations under any other treaties.
(2) Nothing in this Treaty shall derogate from existing obligations that Contracting Parties have to each other under the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works.
(3) Hereinafter, 'Berne Convention' shall refer to the Paris Act of July 24, 1971 of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works.
(4) Contracting Parties shall comply with Articles 1 to 21 and the Appendix of the Berne Convention.
Rights of communication to the public
Without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 11(1)(ii), 11bis(1)(i) and (ii), 11ter(1)(ii), 14(1)(ii) and 14bis(1) of the Berne Convention, authors of literary and artistic works shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing any communication to the public of their works, by wire or wireless means, including the making available to the public of their works in such a way that members of the public may access these works from a place and at a time individually chosen by them."
"It is understood that the mere provision of physical facilities for enabling or making a communication does not in itself amount to communication within the meaning of this Treaty or the Berne Convention. …"
Right of Making Available of Fixed Performances Performers shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the making available to the public of their performances fixed in phonograms, by wire or wireless means, in such a way that members of the public may access them from a place and at a time individually chosen by them.
Right of Making Available of Phonograms
Producers of phonograms shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the making available to the public of their phonograms, by wire or wireless means, in such a way that members of the public may access them from a place and at a time individually chosen by them."
Information Society Directive
"(23) This Directive should harmonise further the author's right of communication to the public. This right should be understood in a broad sense covering all communication to the public not present at the place where the communication originates. This right should cover any such transmission or retransmission of a work to the public by wire or wireless means, including broadcasting. This right should not cover any other acts.
(24) The right to make available to the public subject-matter referred to in Article 3(2) should be understood as covering all acts of making available such subject-matter to members of the public not present at the place where the act of making available originates, and as not covering any other acts.
(25) The legal uncertainty regarding the nature and the level of protection of acts of on-demand transmission of copyright works and subject-matter protected by related rights over networks should be overcome by providing for harmonised protection at Community level. It should be made clear that all rightholders recognised by this Directive should have an exclusive right to make available to the public copyright works or any other subject-matter by way of interactive on-demand transmissions. Such interactive on-demand transmissions are characterised by the fact that members of the public may access them from a place and at a time individually chosen by them.
(26) With regard to the making available in on-demand services by broadcasters of their radio or television productions incorporating music from commercial phonograms as an integral part thereof, collective licensing arrangements are to be encouraged in order to facilitate the clearance of the rights concerned.
(27) The mere provision of physical facilities for enabling or making a communication does not in itself amount to communication within the meaning of this Directive.
(58) Member States should provide for effective sanctions and remedies for infringements of rights and obligations as set out in this Directive. They should take all the measures necessary to ensure that those sanctions and remedies are applied. The sanctions thus provided for should be effective, proportionate and dissuasive and should include the possibility of seeking damages and/or injunctive relief and, where appropriate, of applying for seizure of infringing material.
(59) In the digital environment, in particular, the services of intermediaries may increasingly be used by third parties for infringing activities. In many cases such intermediaries are best placed to bring such infringing activities to an end. Therefore, without prejudice to any other sanctions and remedies available, rightholders should have the possibility of applying for an injunction against an intermediary who carries a third party's infringement of a protected work or other subject-matter in a network. This possibility should be available even where the acts carried out by the intermediary are exempted under Article 5. The conditions and modalities relating to such injunctions should be left to the national law of the Member States."
"Right of communication to the public of works and right of making available to the public other subject-matter
1. Member States shall provide authors with the exclusive right to authorise or prohibit any communication to the public of their works, by wire or wireless means, including the making available to the public of their works in such a way that members of the public may access them from a place and at a time individually chosen by them.
2. Member States shall provide for the exclusive right to authorise or prohibit the making available to the public, by wire or wireless means, in such a way that members of the public may access them from a place and at a time individually chosen by them:
(a) for performers, of fixations of their performances;
(b) for phonogram producers, of their phonograms;
(c) for the producers of the first fixations of films, of the original and copies of their films;
(d) for broadcasting organisations, of fixations of their broadcasts, whether these broadcasts are transmitted by wire or over the air, including by cable or satellite.
3. The rights referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not be exhausted by any act of communication to the public or making available to the public as set out in this Article."
"Sanctions and remedies
1. Member States shall provide appropriate sanctions and remedies in respect of infringements of the rights and obligations set out in this Directive and shall take all the measures necessary to ensure that those sanctions and remedies are applied. The sanctions thus provided for shall be effective, proportionate and dissuasive.
2. Each Member State shall take the measures necessary to ensure that rightholders whose interests are affected by an infringing activity carried out on its territory can bring an action for damages and/or apply for an injunction and, where appropriate, for the seizure of infringing material as well as of devices, products or components referred to in Article 6(2).
3. Member States shall ensure that rightholders are in a position to apply for an injunction against intermediaries whose services are used by a third party to infringe a copyright or related right."
Domestic implementation of the Information Society Directive
The 1988 Act
"The acts restricted by copyright in a work
16.(1) The owner of the copyright in a work has, in accordance with the following provisions of this Chapter, the exclusive right to do the following acts in the United Kingdom –
(a) to copy the work (see section 17);
(d) to communicate the work to the public (see section 20);
and those acts are referred to in this Part as the 'acts restricted by the copyright'.
(2) Copyright in a work is infringed by a person who without the licence of the copyright owner does, or authorises another to do, any of the acts restricted by the copyright.
(3) References in this Part to the doing of an act restricted by the copyright in a work are to the doing of it –
(a) in relation to the work as a whole or any substantial part of it
(b) either directly or indirectly;
and it is immaterial whether any intervening acts themselves infringe copyright.
Infringement of copyright by copying
17.(1) The copying of the work is an act restricted by the copyright in every description of copyright work; and references in this Part to copying and copies shall be construed as follows.
(2) Copying in relation to a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work means reproducing the work in any material form. This includes storing the work in any medium by electronic means.
(6) Copying in relation to any description of work includes the making of copies which are transient or are incidental to some other use of the work.
Infringement by communication to the public
20.(1) The communication to the public of the work is an act restricted by the copyright in—
(a) a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work,
(b) a sound recording or film, or
(c) a broadcast.
(2) References in this Part to communication to the public are to communication to the public by electronic transmission, and in relation to a work include—
(a) the broadcasting of the work;
(b) the making available to the public of the work by electronic transmission in such a way that members of the public may access it from a place and at a time individually chosen by them.
97A Injunctions against service providers
(1) The High Court (in Scotland, the Court of Session) shall have power to grant an injunction against a service provider, where that service provider has actual knowledge of another person using their service to infringe copyright.
(2) In determining whether a service provider has actual knowledge for the purpose of this section, a Court shall take into account all matters which appear to it in the particular circumstances to be relevant and, amongst other things, shall have regard to –
(a) whether a service provider has received a notice through a means of contact made available in accordance with regulation 6(1)(c) of the Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) Regulations 2002 (SI 2002/2013); and
(b) the extent to which any notice includes –
(i) the full name and address of the sender of the notice;
(ii) details of the infringement in question.
(3) In this section 'service provider' has the meaning given to it by regulation 2 of the Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) Regulations 2002."
Infringement by users of TPB
Communication to the public
"40. It should also be pointed out that a communication made in circumstances such as those in the main proceedings constitutes, according to Article 11bis(1)(ii) of the Berne Convention, a communication made by a broadcasting organisation other than the original one. Thus, such a transmission is made to a public different from the public at which the original act of communication of the work is directed, that is, to a new public.
41. As is explained in the Guide to the Berne Convention, an interpretative document drawn up by the WIPO which, without being legally binding, nevertheless assists in interpreting that Convention, when the author authorises the broadcast of his work, he considers only direct users, that is, the owners of reception equipment who, either personally or within their own private or family circles, receive the programme. According to the Guide, if reception is for a larger audience, possibly for profit, a new section of the receiving public hears or sees the work and the communication of the programme via a loudspeaker or analogous instrument no longer constitutes simple reception of the programme itself but is an independent act through which the broadcast work is communicated to a new public. As the Guide makes clear, such public reception falls within the scope of the author's exclusive authorisation right.
42. The clientele of a hotel forms such a new public. The transmission of the broadcast work to that clientele using television sets is not just a technical means to ensure or improve reception of the original broadcast in the catchment area. On the contrary, the hotel is the organisation which intervenes, in full knowledge of the consequences of its action, to give access to the protected work to its customers. In the absence of that intervention, its customers, although physically within that area, would not, in principle, be able to enjoy the broadcast work.
43. It follows from Art.3(1) of Directive 2001/29 and Art.8 of the WIPO Copyright Treaty that for there to be communication to the public it is sufficient that the work is made available to the public in such a way that the persons forming that public may access it. Therefore, it is not decisive, contrary to the submissions of Rafael and Ireland, that customers who have not switched on the television have not actually had access to the works.
44. Moreover, it is apparent from the documents submitted to the court that the action by the hotel by which it gives access to the broadcast work to its customers must be considered an additional service performed with the aim of obtaining some benefit. It cannot be seriously disputed that the provision of that service has an influence on the hotel's standing and, therefore, on the price of rooms. Therefore, even taking the view, as does the Commission of the European Communities, that the pursuit of profit is not a necessary condition for the existence of a communication to the public, it is in any event established that the communication is of a profit-making nature in circumstances such as those in the main proceedings.
46. While the mere provision of physical facilities, usually involving, besides the hotel, companies specialising in the sale or hire of television sets, does not constitute, as such, a communication within the meaning of Directive 2001/29, the installation of such facilities may nevertheless make public access to broadcast works technically possible. Therefore, if, by means of television sets thus installed, the hotel distributes the signal to customers staying in its rooms, then communication to the public takes place, irrespective of the technique used to transmit the signal."
"While the mere provision of physical facilities does not as such amount to communication within the meaning of Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of copyright and related rights in the information society, the distribution of a signal by means of television sets by a hotel to customers staying in its rooms, whatever technique is used to transmit the signal, constitutes communication to the public within the meaning of Article 3(1) of that directive."
"191. As regards, first, the concept of communication, it is apparent from Article 8(3) of the Related Rights Directive and Articles 2(g) and 15 of the Performance and Phonograms Treaty that such a concept includes 'making the sounds or representations of sounds fixed in a phonogram audible to the public' and that it encompasses broadcasting or 'any communication to the public'.
192. More specifically, as Article 11bis(1)(iii) of the Berne Convention expressly indicates, that concept encompasses communication by loudspeaker or any other instrument transmitting, by signs, sounds or images, covering – in accordance with the explanatory memorandum accompanying the proposal for a copyright directive (COM(97) 628 final) – a means of communication such as display of the works on a screen.
193. That being so, and since the European Union legislature has not expressed a different intention as regards the interpretation of that concept in the Copyright Directive, in particular in Article 3 thereof (see paragraph 188 of the present judgment), the concept of communication must be construed broadly, as referring to any transmission of the protected works, irrespective of the technical means or process used.
194. In Case C-403/08, the proprietor of a public house intentionally gives the customers present in that establishment access to a broadcast containing protected works via a television screen and speakers. Without his intervention the customers cannot enjoy the works broadcast, even though they are physically within the broadcast's catchment area. Thus, the circumstances of such an act prove comparable to those in SGAE.
196. Accordingly, it must be held that the proprietor of a public house effects a communication when he intentionally transmits broadcast works, via a television screen and speakers, to the customers present in that establishment.
197. That said, in order for there to be a 'communication to the public' within the meaning of Article 3(1) of the Copyright Directive in circumstances such as those of the main proceedings, it is also necessary for the work broadcast to be transmitted to a new public, that is to say, to a public which was not taken into account by the authors of the protected works when they authorised their use by the communication to the original public (see, to this effect, SGAE, paragraphs 40 and 42, and the order of 18 March 2010 in Case C-136/09 Organismos Sillogikis Diacheirisis Dimiourgon Theatrikon kai Optikoakoustikon Ergon, paragraph 38).
198. When those authors authorise a broadcast of their works, they consider, in principle, only the owners of television sets who, either personally or within their own private or family circles, receive the signal and follow the broadcasts. Where a broadcast work is transmitted, in a place accessible to the public, for an additional public which is permitted by the owner of the television set to hear or see the work, an intentional intervention of that kind must be regarded as an act by which the work in question is communicated to a new public (see, to this effect, SGAE, paragraph 41, and Organismos Sillogikis Diacheirisis Dimiourgon Theatrikon kai Optikoakoustikon Ergon, paragraph 37).
199. That is so when the works broadcast are transmitted by the proprietor of a public house to the customers present in that establishment, because those customers constitute an additional public which was not considered by the authors when they authorised the broadcasting of their works."
"44. First of all, it should be borne in mind that Directive 93/83 is not the only European Union instrument in the field of intellectual property and that, in view of the requirements deriving from the unity and coherence of the legal order of the European Union, the terms used by that directive must be interpreted in the light of the rules and principles established by other directives relating to intellectual property, such as, in particular, Directive 2001/29 (see, by analogy, Case C-271/10 VEWA  ECR I-0000, paragraph 27).
71. … it is clear from Article 2 of Directive 93/83 that copyright holders must authorise any communication of the protected works to the public by satellite.
72. Next, it follows from the Court's case-law that such authorisation must be obtained in particular by a person who triggers such a communication or who intervenes when it is carried out, so that, by means of that communication, he makes the protected works accessible to a new public, that is to say, a public which was not taken into account by the authors of the protected works within the framework of an authorisation given to another person (see, by analogy, with regard to communication to the public within the meaning of Article 3 of Directive 2001/29, Case C-306/05 SGAE  ECR I-11519, paragraphs 40 and 42, and the order of 18 March 2010 in Case C-136/09 Organismos Sillogikis Diacheirisis Dimiourgon Theatrikon kai Optikoakoustikon Ergon, paragraph 38)."
"Article 2 of Council Directive 93/83/EEC of 27 September 1993 on the coordination of certain rules concerning copyright and rights related to copyright applicable to satellite broadcasting and cable retransmission must be interpreted as requiring a satellite package provider to obtain authorisation from the right holders concerned for its intervention in the direct or indirect transmission of television programmes, such as the transmission at issue in the main proceedings, unless the right holders have agreed with the broadcasting organisation concerned that the protected works will also be communicated to the public through that provider, on condition, in the latter situation, that the provider's intervention does not make those works accessible to a new public."
"23. Whilst the decision in Airfield is consistent with the provisional view which I expressed [in ITV v TVCatchup (No 2)], I am not persuaded that the principle of law engaged in the present case is rendered acte claire by Airfield. The Court's multi-factorial approach does not make it easy to distil a clear principle as to what amounts to a communication to the public in this context. The extent to which the creation of a new link from the broadcasting organisation to the subscriber is to be equated, without more, with the creation of a 'new public' is not clear. It is also not clear whether the subscribers in the present case can be described as 'unable to enjoy the broadcasts although physically within the catchment area', given that they are entitled to receive the original broadcast in their own homes and on their laptops without intervention from TVC. Equally it is not clear whether the audience reached by these broadcasts is an audience which is additional to the public targeted by the broadcasting organisation concerned.
24. I therefore intend to refer a question, notwithstanding Airfield. The question I propose to send is as follows:
'Does the right to authorise or prohibit a "communication to the public of their works by wire or wireless means" in Article 3.1 of the Directive extend to a case where:
(i) Authors authorise the inclusion of their works in a terrestrial free-to-air television broadcast which is intended for reception either throughout the territory of a Member State or within a geographical area within a Member State;
(ii) A third party (i.e. an organisation other than the original broadcaster), provides a service whereby individual subscribers within the intended area of reception of the broadcast who could lawfully receive the broadcast on a television receiver in their own homes may log on to the third party's server and receive the content of the broadcast by means of an internet stream?
Does it make any difference to the answer to the above question if:
(a) The third party's server allows only a "one-to-one" connection for each subscriber whereby each individual subscriber establishes his or her own internet connection to the server and every data packet sent by the server onto the internet is addressed to only one individual subscriber?
(b) The third party's service is funded by advertising which is presented "pre-roll" (i.e. during the period of time after a subscriber logs on but before he or she begins to receive the broadcast content) or "in-skin" (i.e. within the frame of the viewing software which displays the received programme on the subscriber's viewing device but outside the programme picture) but the original advertisements contained within the broadcast are presented to the subscriber at the point where they are inserted in the programme by the broadcaster?
(c) the intervening organisation is:
(i) providing an alternative service to that of the original broadcaster, thereby acting in competition with the original broadcaster for viewers; or
(ii) acting in competition with the original broadcaster for advertising revenues?'"
Infringement by the operators of TPB
"In my judgment it is clear from this passage that 'authorise' means the grant or purported grant of the right to do the act complained of. It does not extend to mere enablement, assistance or even encouragement. The grant or purported grant to do the relevant act may be express or implied from all the relevant circumstances. In a case which involves an allegation of authorisation by supply, these circumstances may include the nature of the relationship between the alleged authoriser and the primary infringer, whether the equipment or other material supplied constitutes the means used to infringe, whether it is inevitable it will be used to infringe, the degree of control which the supplier retains and whether he has taken any steps to prevent infringement. These are matters to be taken into account and may or may not be determinative depending upon all the other circumstances."
He went on at - to conclude on the fact of that case that Newzbin Ltd had indeed authorised infringements of the claimants' copyrights by its premium members.
i) TPB indexes and arranges torrent files so that users can choose between various different search facilities to assist them in browsing for content to download or in locating specific content or categories of content.
ii) When uploading a torrent file, users are required to provide detailed information about it. This information provides TPB with the ability to index it and make it available for searching. It also assists users in deciding whether or not to download it.
iii) TPB does not merely receive the upload of the torrent file, it processes it. For example, TPB deletes any tracker server that may have been nominated by the uploader in the torrent file and replaces it with tracker servers of TPB's choosing.
iv) Users are provided with assistance and advice as to how to download from the site and as to the trustworthiness of particular torrents. Status badges are awarded to uploaders to provide an indication of number and popularity of their uploads.
v) Users are also provided with assistance and advice as to how to circumvent blocking measures taken as a result of court orders.
vi) Users are offered links to "cyberlocker" storage facilities for downloaded material.
vii) Registered users are able to set preferences which allow them to choose what material can be downloaded and how information is displayed on the website.
viii) TPB provides a forum for users to share information about content and even to ask other users to upload particular content which might not currently be available.
ix) Users are offered a choice of 35 different languages to facilitate and encourage the widest possible participation in the use of its services by those engaged in P2P file-sharing.
i) Its name – The Pirate Bay – and associated pirate ship logo are clearly a reference to the popular terminology applied to online copyright infringement: online piracy.
ii) According to a statement published on its site, it was founded by a "Swedish anti copyright organisation".
iii) The matters described in paragraph 13 above.
iv) In the first instance judgment in the Swedish criminal proceedings, Lundström was recorded as stating that "the purpose of the site was pirate copying".
v) It is also evident from the numerous proceedings in other European jurisdictions that the operators of TPB are well aware that it is engaged in copyright infringement. Injunctions and other orders against the operators of TPB have been ignored. Orders against TPB's hosting service providers have been circumvented by moving TPB to new providers.
"108. I derive from these passages that mere (or even knowing) assistance or facilitation of the primary infringement is not enough. The joint tortfeasor must have so involved himself in the tort as to make it his own. This will be the case if he has induced, incited or persuaded the primary infringer to engage in the infringing act or if there is a common design or concerted action or agreement on a common action to secure the doing of the infringing act.
109. All of these cases were referred to in the recent decision of Arnold J in L'Oréal v eBay  EWHC 1094,  RPC 21. In this action L'Oréal advanced a number of claims arising from the sale through the eBay online marketplace of goods bearing L'Oréal's trade marks. One of the issues which arose was whether eBay was liable for trade mark infringement as a joint tortfeasor with the sellers of such goods. Arnold J rejected this claim on the facts, essentially because eBay was under no legal duty to prevent infringement and facilitation of infringement with knowledge and an intention to profit was not enough to render it liable.
110. I must now apply these principles to the facts of this case. In doing so I recognise at the outset that the claimants are not able to point to specific acts of infringement by particular infringers which the defendant may be said to have procured. However, I do not understand Lord Templeman's speech in Amstrad to preclude a finding of liability in such a case. Clearly it is one of the matters to be taken into account and absent the identification of such specific acts a finding of procurement would not in general be appropriate. Nevertheless, the question to be answered remains the same, namely whether the defendant has engaged in a common design by so involving himself in the infringement as to make it his own; or whether the defendant has procured an infringement by inducement, incitement or persuasion."
Again he concluded on the facts of the case that Newzbin Ltd had procured and engaged in common design with its premium members to infringe the claimants' copyrights.