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England and Wales Court of Appeal (Civil Division) Decisions
You are here: BAILII >> Databases >> England and Wales Court of Appeal (Civil Division) Decisions >> Moore Stephens (A Firm) v Stone & Rolls Ltd (In Liquidation)  EWCA Civ 644 (18 June 2008)
Cite as:  2 Lloyd's Rep 319,  EWCA Civ 644,  PNLR 36,  Bus LR 1579,  3 WLR 1146,  Lloyd's Rep FC 426,  2 BCLC 461
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COURT OF APPEAL (CIVIL DIVISION)
ON APPEAL FROM THE QUEEN'S BENCH DIVISION
Mr Justice Langley
Strand, London, WC2A 2LL
B e f o r e :
LORD JUSTICE KEENE
LORD JUSTICE RIMER
| MOORE STEPHENS (a firm)
|- and -
|STONE & ROLLS LIMITED (in liquidation)
WordWave International Limited
A Merrill Communications Company
190 Fleet Street, London EC4A 2AG
Tel No: 020 7404 1400, Fax No: 020 7831 8838
Official Shorthand Writers to the Court)
Mr Michael Brindle QC, Mr Mark Simpson and Mr David Murray (instructed by Norton Rose LLP) for the Respondent
Hearing dates: 11, 12 and 13 March 2008
Crown Copyright ©
Lord Justice Rimer :
"9. The claimant (KB) was a Czech Bank. It was the major victim of the fraud. The letters of credit were issued by the Bank at the request of an Austrian company called BCL. The Letters of Credit related to purported sales of agricultural products by S&R to BCL. S&R was the beneficiary. The claims related to 30 letters of credit which were honoured upon presentation by S&R of the relevant documents but for which KB received no payment from BCL. They were issued between July 1998 and July 1999. The first letters of credit were issued at the end of December 1997 but they were paid on maturity. KB's case was that the documents presented to it were false in particular by representing that the issuing warehouse as S&R's agent was holding the invoiced goods in favour of KB when in fact there were no goods at all. KB alleged that Mr Stojevic was responsible for procuring the fraudulent presentation of documents to it and that he and S&R were jointly liable to KB in deceit. The defendants denied dishonesty.
10. Toulson J found that the documents presented to KB by S&R were false to the knowledge of both S&R and Mr Stojevic; that their presentation had caused KB to pay S&R or its assignee (where discounted by S&R) the face value of the letters of credit; and so had caused the loss to KB arising from those payments. Toulson J also held that while KB had itself been negligent that was no answer for a fraudster. He gave judgment for KB against both defendants for US $94.5 million. That was the figure paid out by KB under the 30 unreimbursed letters of credit. The evidence before Toulson J showed that of the total amount received by S&R from the fraud of approximately US $90 million, some 80 million was paid to BCL or companies connected with BCL. The evidence before this court shows that the inwards receipt of monies was promptly followed by the outward payments.
11. The judgment (no doubt because it was not necessary) contains no analysis of whether the liability of S&R was founded on vicarious liability for the fraud of Mr Stojevic, attribution of knowledge or otherwise."
"16. Mr Stojevic's intention throughout was to use S&R as a vehicle of fraud, i.e. it was intended to be, and became, a vehicle through which funds were extracted from banks which believed that they were financing bona fide commodity trades and then paid away to third parties who were under the influence or control of Mr Stojevic. The fraudulent transactions which he planned and executed through S&R became both larger and more obviously fraudulent as he realised that Moore Stephens had failed to detect his earlier frauds and would probably not detect his frauds in the future."
"… to ensure, so far as possible, that the financial information as to the company's affairs prepared by the directors accurately reflects the company's position in order, first, to protect the company itself from the consequences of undetected errors or, possibly, wrongdoing (by, for instance, declaring dividends out of capital) …."
Ex turpi causa non oritur actio
"No court will lend its aid to a man who founds his cause of action on an immoral or an illegal act. If, from the plaintiff's own stating or otherwise, the cause of action appears to arise ex turpi causa … there the court says that he has no right to be assisted. It is on this ground the court goes; not for the sake of the defendant, but because they will not lend their aid to such a plaintiff."
"In my judgment the time has come to decide clearly that the rule is the same whether a plaintiff founds himself on a legal or equitable title: he is entitled to recover if he is not forced to plead or rely on the illegality, even if it emerges that the title on which he relied was acquired in the course of carrying through an illegal transaction."
"It is important to observe that, as Lord Mansfield made clear, the principle is not a principle of justice; it is a principle of policy, whose application is indiscriminate and so can lead to unfair consequences as between the parties to litigation. Moreover the principle allows no room for the exercise of any discretion by the court in favour of one party or the other."
"I do not believe that there is any general principle that the claimant must either plead, give evidence of or rely on his own illegality for the principle to apply. Such a technical approach is entirely absent from Lord Mansfield's exposition of the principle. I would, however, accept that for the principle to operate the claim made by the claimant must arise out of criminal or illegal conduct on his part. In this context 'arise out of' clearly denotes a causal connection with the conduct."
"In my judgment, where the claimant is behaving unlawfully, or criminally, on the occasion when his cause of action in tort arises, his claim is not liable to be defeated ex turpi causa unless it is also established that the facts which give rise to it are inextricably linked with his criminal conduct. I have deliberately expressed myself in language which goes well beyond questions of causation in the general sense."
"29. To my mind the authorities support that approach. They seem to me to support the proposition that where a claimant has to rely upon his or her own unlawful act in order to establish the whole or part of his or her claim the claim will fail either wholly or in part. …"
"51. For this reason I favour a broad test of the kind proposed by Clarke LJ, namely: is the claim or the relevant part of it based substantially (and not therefore collaterally or insignificantly) on an unlawful act? …"
"But these opinions have not prevailed, and their Lordships are not prepared to give effect to them. If it is once granted that corporations are for civil purposes to be regarded as persons, i.e., as principals acting by agents and servants, it is difficult to see why the ordinary doctrines of agency and of master and servant are not to be applied to corporations as well as to ordinary individuals. The doctrines have been so applied in a great variety of cases, in questions arising out of contract, and in questions arising out of torts and frauds; and to apply them to one class of libels and to deny their application to another class of libels on the ground that malice cannot be imputed to a body corporate appears to their Lordships to be contrary to sound legal principles."
"There is in fact no such thing as the company as such, no ding an sich, only the applicable rules. To say that a company cannot do something means only that there is no one whose doing of that act would, under the applicable rules of attribution, count as an act of the company.
The company's primary rules of attribution together with the general principles of agency, vicarious liability and so forth are usually sufficient to enable one to determine its rights and obligations. In exceptional cases, however, they will not provide an answer. This will be the case when a rule of law, either expressly or by implication, excludes attribution on the basis of the general principles of agency or vicarious liability. For example, a rule may be stated in language primarily applicable to a natural person and require some act or state of mind on the part of that person 'himself,' as opposed to his servants or agents. This is generally true of rules of the criminal law, which ordinarily impose liability only for the actus reus and mens rea of the defendant himself. How is such a rule to be applied to a company?
One possibility is that the court may come to the conclusion that the rule was not intended to apply to companies at all; for example, a law which created an offence for which the only penalty was community service. Another possibility is that the court might interpret the law as meaning that it could apply to a company only on the basis of its primary rules of attribution, i.e. if the act giving rise to liability was specifically authorised by a resolution of the board or an unanimous agreement of the shareholders. But there will be many cases in which neither of these solutions is satisfactory; in which the court considers that the law was intended to apply to companies and that, although it excludes ordinary vicarious liability, insistence on the primary rules of attribution would in practice defeat that intention. In such a case, the court must fashion a special rule of attribution for the particular substantive rule. This is always a matter of interpretation: given that it was intended to apply to a company, how was it intended to apply? Whose act (or knowledge, or state of mind) was for this purpose intended to count as the act etc. of the company? One finds the answer to this question by applying the usual canons of interpretation, taking into account the language of the rule (if it is a statute) and its content and policy".
"My Lords, a corporation is an abstraction. It has no mind of its own any more than it has a body of its own; its active and directing will must consequently be sought in the person of somebody who for some purposes may be called an agent, but who is really the directing mind and will of the corporation, the very ego and centre of the personality of the corporation. That person may be under the direction of the shareholders in general meeting; that person may be the board of directors itself, or it may be, and in some companies it is so, that that person has an authority co-ordinate with the board of directors given to him under the articles of association, and is appointed by the general meeting of the company, and can only be removed by the general meeting of the company. My Lords, whatever is not known about Mr Lennard's position, this is known for certain, Mr Lennard took the active part in the management of this ship on behalf of the owners, and Mr Lennard, as I have said, was registered as the person designated for this purpose in the ship's register. Mr Lennard therefore was the natural person to come on behalf of the owners and give full evidence not only about the events of which I have spoken, and which related to the seaworthiness of the ship, but about his own position and as to whether or not he was the life and soul of the company. For if Mr Lennard was the directing mind of the company, then his action must, unless a corporation is not to be liable at all, have been an action which was the action of the company itself within the meaning of s.502. It has not been contended at the Bar, and it could not have been successfully contended, that s.502 is so worded as to exempt a corporation altogether which happens to be the owner of a ship, merely because it happens to be a corporation. It must be upon the true construction of that section in such a case as the present one that the fault or privity of somebody who is not merely a servant or agent for whom the company is liable upon the footing respondeat superior, but somebody for whom the company is liable because his action is the very action of the company itself. It is not enough that the fault should be the fault of a servant in order to exonerate the owner, the fault must also be one which is not the fault of the owner, or a fault to which the owner is privy; and I take the view that when anybody sets up that section to excuse himself from the normal consequences of the maxim respondeat superior, the burden lies on him to do so."
"I must start by considering the nature of the personality which by a fiction the law attributes to a corporation. A living person has a mind which can have knowledge or intention or be negligent and he has hands to carry out his intentions. A corporation has none of these: it must act through living persons, though not always one or the same person. Then the person who acts is not speaking or acting for the company. He is acting as the company and his mind which directs his acts is the mind of the company. There is no question of the company being vicariously liable. He is not acting as a servant, representative, agent or delegate. He is an embodiment of the company or, one could say, he hears and speaks through the persona of the company, within its appropriate sphere, and his mind is the mind of the company. If it is a guilty mind then that guilt is the guilt of the company. It must be a question of law whether, once the facts have been ascertained, a person in doing particular things is to be regarded as the company or merely as the company's servant or agent. In that case any liability of the company can only be a statutory or vicarious liability. …
… Normally the board of directors, the managing director and perhaps other superior officers of a company carry out the functions of management and speak and act as the company. Their subordinates do not. They carry out orders from above and it can make no difference that they are given some measure of discretion. But the board of directors may delegate some part of their functions of management giving to their delegate full discretion to act independently of instructions from them. I see no difficulty in holding that they have thereby put such a delegate in their place so that within the scope of the delegation he can act as the company. It may not always be easy to draw the line but there are cases in which the line must be drawn. Lennard's case  AC 705 was one of them."
The Hampshire Land principle
"The case is very much more like the one which [counsel for Hampshire's liquidator] had to admit was an exception to the general rule that they sought to lay down, for they admitted that if Wills had been guilty of a fraud, the personal knowledge of Wills of the fraud that he had committed upon the company would not have been knowledge of [Portsea] of the facts constituting that fraud; because common sense at once leads one to the conclusion that it would be impossible to infer that the duty, either of giving or receiving notice, will be fulfilled where the common agent is himself guilty of fraud. It seems to me that if you assume here that Mr Wills was guilty of irregularity – a breach of duty in respect of these transactions – the same inference is to be drawn as if he had been guilty of fraud. I do not know, I am sure, whether he was guilty of actual fraud; but whether his conduct amounted to fraud or to breach of duty, I decline to hold that his knowledge of his own fraud or of his own breach of duty is, under the circumstances, the knowledge of the company [which I take to mean Portsea]. I must, therefore, admit the proof."
"On the footing that the directors of the plaintiff company who were present at the board meeting on October 11, 1963, knew that the sale of the Maximum shares was at an inflated value, and that such value was inflated for the purpose of enabling the third, fourth, fifth and sixth defendants to buy the share capital of the plaintiff company, those directors must be taken to have known that the transaction was illegal under section 54.
It may emerge at a trial that the facts are not as alleged in the statement of claim, but if the allegations in the statement of claim are made good, the directors of the plaintiff company must then have known that the transaction was an illegal transaction.
But in my view such knowledge should not be imputed to the company, for the essence of the arrangement was to deprive the company of a large part of its assets. As I have said, the company was a victim of the conspiracy. I think it would be irrational to treat the directors, who were allegedly parties to the conspiracy, notionally as having transmitted this knowledge to the company; and indeed it is a well-recognised exception from the general rule that a principal is affected by notice received by his agent that, if the agent is acting in fraud of his principal and the matter of which he has notice is relevant to the fraud, that knowledge is not to be imputed to the principal.
So in my opinion the plaintiff company should not be regarded as a party to the conspiracy, on the ground of lack of the necessary guilty knowledge."
"2(1) A person's appropriation of property belonging to another is not to be regarded as dishonest –
(b) if he appropriates the property in the belief that he would have the other's consent if the other knew of the appropriation and the circumstances of it; …"
"The essence of the defendants' argument is the alleged identity, in all respects, and for every purpose, between the defendants and the company. It is said, in effect, that their acts are necessarily the company's acts; that their will, knowledge, and belief are those of the company, and that their consent necessarily implies consent by the company. But how then can the company be regarded as 'the other' for the purposes of this provision? One merely has to read its wording to see that it cannot be given any sensible meaning in a context such as the present, where the mind and will of the defendants are also treated in law as the mind and will of 'the other.' It is for this reason that in such cases there can be no conspiracy between the directors and shareholders on the one hand and the company on the other: Reg v. McDonnell [ 1 QB 233."
Does the Hampshire Land principle apply in this case?
"… that the company was in a very real sense a victim of the fraud in that it paid the VAT shown on each of the invoices, and if the commissioners' argument is accepted, they were not entitled to claim input relief. On any view, the company suffered a cash flow detriment in paying the VAT and only subsequently being credited with the input relief."
"55. In my judgment, the tribunal correctly concluded that there should be attribution in the present case, since the company could not sensibly be regarded as a victim of the fraud. They were right to hold that the fraud was 'neutral' from the company's point of view. The circumstances in which the exception to the general rule of attribution will apply are where the person whose acts it is sought to impute to the company knows or believes that his acts are detrimental to the interests of the company in a material respect. This explains, for example, the reference by Viscount Sumner in J.C.Houghton & Co v. Nothard Lowe and Wills Ltd  AC 1 at 19 to making 'a clean breast of their delinquency'. It follows that, in judging whether a company is to be regarded as the victim of the acts of a person, one should consider the effects of the acts themselves, and not what the position would be if those acts eventually prove to be ineffective. As the tribunal pointed out, in Director General of Fair Trading v. Pioneer Concrete (UK) Ltd  1 AC 456 the company suffered a large fine for contempt of court on account of the wrongful acts of its managers. The fact that their wrongful acts caused the company to suffer a financial penalty in this way did not prevent the acts and knowledge of the managers from being attributed to it.
56. The Hampshire Land principle or exception is founded in common sense and justice. It is obvious good sense and justice that the act of an employee should not be attributed to the employer company if in truth, the act is directed at, and harmful to, the interests of the company. In the present case, the fraud was not aimed at the company. It was not intended by the participants in the fraud that the interests of the company should be harmed by their conduct. In judging whether the fraud was in fact harmful to the interests of the company, one should not be too ready to find such harm. In my view, the cash flow point made by Mr Purle [leading counsel for the company] comes nowhere near being serious enough to trigger the principle. Looking at the facts of this case from a common sense point of view, there was no VAT fraud or harm to the interests of the company. The tribunal were entitled to reach this conclusion. It was the correct conclusion to reach."
"114. Clearly there are some circumstances in which an individual's knowledge of fraud cannot and should not be attributed to a company. The classic case is where the company is itself the target of an agent or employee's dishonesty. In general, if would not be sensible or realistic to attribute knowledge to the company concerned, if attribution had the effect of defeating the right of the company to recover from a dishonest agent or employee or from a third party. Mr Moss [leading counsel for BoI] argued that there should be no attribution of knowledge as this was a case in which BoI was the 'secondary victim' of Mr Samant. His actions were harmful to the interests of BoI, as he had exposed it to the risk of potential liability for fraudulent trading. We have no hesitation in rejecting that submission. If it were correct, it would never be possible to attribute the knowledge of the individual to a company under section 213. That is contrary to the agreed position that a company is capable of being liable under s.213. Knowledge of fraud may be attributed to a company even though such attribution may expose it to the risk of liability under s.213.
115. BoI criticised the judge for not applying to this case the principle that the knowledge of an agent should not be attributed to the principal when the agent is acting fraudulently or otherwise in breach of duty and in circumstances where it was contrary to common sense to consider that the agent would have passed on his knowledge of the fraud to his principal. It was argued by BoI that it was contrary to common sense to conclude that Mr Samant, who was found to have been dishonest and to have acted in breach of duty in causing BoI to take part in the transactions with BCCI, would have passed on to the directors of BoI his knowledge that BCCI was conducting its business with an intention to defraud its creditors.
116. As appears from the principles laid down in Meridian (see above) the terms of the legislation and the circumstances of the case may make it appropriate to attribute knowledge of fraud to the company, even though a person with knowledge of the fraud has acted dishonestly, in breach of his duty to his principal or employer and in circumstances in which he would not have passed on his knowledge to his agent or employer. For example in McNicholas Construction Co Ltd v. Customs & Excise Commissioners  STC 553 a site manager was dishonest in relation to the liability of his employer for VAT. It was held that the policy and content of the legislation overrode any principle that knowledge of fraud was not attributable to a company that was itself a victim of fraud. The company was held liable for VAT evasion.
117. It was submitted that Patten J was wrong to follow McNicholas. It was distinguishable from the present case as it was necessary to have attribution of knowledge to the company in that case in order to make the VAT legislation work. That was not, it was contended, the case here. There was no need to discern or fashion a special rule of attribution in order to prevent the policy of the legislation from being frustrated. Section 213 can work perfectly well on the application of the primary rules of corporate responsibility. On the judge's findings the acts of the employee, Mr Samant, were dishonest. His knowledge should not be attributed to BoI as the acts of Mr Samant were aimed at and harmful to its interests and it cannot be inferred that he would have passed on his knowledge of the fraud of BCCI to the board of BoI.
118. We agree with Patten J on this point. As in McNicholas, the acts of Mr Samant were not in fact targeted at BoI. He was acting for, and in what he apparently believed to be the interests of, BoI in seeking to gross up the balance sheet for the purposes of the year end accounts. The potential liability of BoI under s.213 is irrelevant in deciding whether BoI was a victim of Mr Samant and whether his knowledge should be attributed to it for the purposes of s.213."
"There remains the question, raised by Mr Tomlinson's submission [he was leading counsel for Zurich], whether the Hampshire Land doctrine is confined to cases of fraud where the principal is himself the victim of the fraud, or whether, as Mr Justice Vaughan Williams put it in Hampshire Land itself, the doctrine extends to other breaches of duty where common sense would destroy the inference of transfer of knowledge. In the typical case in which the doctrine has been applied, Houghton, Belmont, PCW and Group Josi Re, fraud has been found or assumed. In the present case, fraud is also assumed, but the primary victim of the fraud has been the lending institution which has relied on the valuation. I would accept, however, the plaintiffs' submission that JDW was also a victim, even if only a secondary victim, of the assumed fraud. One consequence of that assumed fraud has been JDW's liability to the plaintiffs, albeit in negligence. Moreover, even if it could be said that JDW, unlike the plaintiffs, was not the victim of Mr Browne's fraud, Mr Browne has, on the assumed facts, been guilty of dishonesty, and one can hardly visualize a graver dereliction of duty to his company. Although the cases often involve fraud, Hampshire Land itself did not necessarily do so, and I note that in Group Jose Re Lord Justice Saville was prepared to accept as a working definition of the scope of the principle the cases of 'the agent's or director's fraud or other breach of duty to the company' (at p. 367). In my judgment, Mr Browne's fault comes within the concept of an agent's fraud on his principal, but, even if it does not, his fault is such a breach of duty to JDW as in justice and common sense must entail that it is impossible to infer that his knowledge of his own dishonesty was transferred to JDW. That conclusion is consistent with the view of Mr Justice Colman in Kingscroft v. Nissan Fire and Marine Insurance Co. Ltd., (unreported, Mar.4, 1996, at p. 12).
It follows that the Hampshire Land doctrine would in any event prevent Mr Browne's or Mr Pitts' knowledge being attributed to JDW."
Discussion and conclusion on the Hampshire Land issue
"The court is going to find some way of making sure that claim is knocked out. Hampshire Land is flexible enough, we submit, to cater for such a situation. It is indeed a flexible doctrine. It is there to protect, where they exist, the rights of innocent interests in the company. That is the whole point behind Belmont and the other cases that we have looked at. In a case where it is simply an elaborate and rather cheeky claim brought by Mr Stojevic effectively to get back on behalf of the company moneys which he has himself pocketed, qua crook, the court is simply not going to apply any [such] principle. There are no innocent parties to be represented and there is no reason why the court should [not] say, 'In that case we will not apply the special rule of [non-] attribution which we would otherwise normally, namely Hampshire Land.' The beauty of Lord Hoffmann's elegant analysis in Meridian of the rules of attribution is they are flexible. It says it all depends on what the situation is."
The "very thing" argument
"If the police's obligation was to guard against suicide, that is, to protect Mr Lynch from a deliberate act against his own life, I do not see how they can be or should be exempted from liability because that deliberate act in fact occurred."
"Tucker LJ said, at pp. 51-52, that the general rule with regard to responsibility for acts done by a third party was 'even though A is in fault, he is not responsible for injury to C which B, a stranger to him, deliberately chooses to do' (see Weld-Blundell v. Stephens  AC 956, 986, per Lord Sumner), but that principle did not apply where 'the act of negligence itself consisted in the failure to take reasonable care to guard against the very thing that in fact happened'" (emphasis added).
"The basic problem in applying that test to this case is the same as with the other defence relied on by the commissioner: that it is simply artificial to contend that a defence to liability can rest upon the performance by the deceased of the very act that the defendant was under a duty to take reasonable steps to prevent" (emphasis added).
"When a judge is asked to hold that a particular outcome would affront the public conscience or shock the ordinary citizen it behoves him to proceed with caution, as did this court in the Kirkham case. No evidence will be available on which to base such conclusions, and therefore the exercise must be one of speculation, albeit one would hope intelligent speculation. In the present case, however, I feel able to address the issue without descending into the arena in that way, because there are in my view clear reasons why the defence of ex turpi causa cannot, as a matter of logic and of legal principle, be available in this case."
"First, the defence fails on a logical ground similar to that which is fatal to the defence of volenti. If it shocks the conscience of the ordinary citizen that a suicide could recover, why is it the duty of the police, not merely as public officers but in the private law of negligence, to take reasonable steps to prevent suicide? The case is, again, quite different from the usual application of ex turpi causa, where the plaintiff suffers injuries in the course of a criminal enterprise such as an affray or burglary. Here, the alleged turpitudinous act is the very thing that the defendant had a duty to try to prevent, imposed by a law of negligence which itself appeals to public conscience or at least to public notions of reasonableness" (emphasis added).
"It cannot, however, be said, in my judgment, that by permitting recovery in a case such as this the law is covertly conniving at or countenancing suicide: it is indeed imposing a civil penalty on those who, having a duty to try to prevent suicide, fail to do so. I do not, either, think that the conscience of the ordinary citizen would be affronted by the awarding of damages to the estate of a deceased in a case such as this."
"60. The respondent, however, alleged that the commission by the appellant of a statutory offence constituted an illegal act that disentitled the latter from pursuing its claim in tort. This argument placed the proverbial cart before the horse. On a proper appreciation of the facts, the appellant's running afoul of the Act could be attributed solely to the fact that the respondent had failed in his duty to warn. To allow the respondent to rely upon a consequence that was directly caused by his own failings and to absolve him from liability, would be to reward the wrongdoer and punish the innocent party.
61. An example would, perhaps, be apposite. Suppose a layperson were to employ the services of a solicitor to execute a trust for the benefit of his dependants. The solicitor reviews the manner in which the client has structured his affairs and, whilst realising that there may be a potential statutory breach for evading stamp duties, chooses to remain quiet. IRAS subsequently imposes a penalty on the client for failing to pay the requisite amount of stamp duty. In these circumstances, it cannot be countenanced that the solicitor was not answerable to the client for having negligently failed to warn the latter of the potential liability for failure to pay stamp duty merely because the client had committed a statutory offence."
"62 … The same court [the Court of Appeal] had also decided, in the earlier case of Reeves v. Commissioner of Police for the Metropolis  QB 169 ( supra), that the illegality defence could not be afforded to the police, in a situation concerning a claim by the dependants of a deceased who had committed suicide in police custody, where the police were aware that the deceased was a suicide risk. The reason was that the claimant's conduct was the very act that the police were under a duty of care to prevent."
Discussion and conclusion on "the very thing" submission
"But trying to stand back, and at the risk of fudging the strictures to be found in Tinsley v. Milligan (albeit with some authority to encourage me), I do not think that the 'conscience of the ordinary citizen' would find anything so repugnant in S&R pursuing this claim which would justify ruling it impermissible by the use of the unforgiving and uncompromising operation of the ex turpi maxim"
Lord Justice Keene :
Lord Justice Mummery :