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England and Wales High Court (Administrative Court) Decisions
You are here: BAILII >> Databases >> England and Wales High Court (Administrative Court) Decisions >> Halebank Parish Council, R (on the application of) v Halton Borough Council & Anor  EWHC 1889 (Admin) (19 July 2012)
Cite as:  EWHC 1889 (Admin)
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QUEEN'S BENCH DIVISION
1 Bridge Street West
Manchester M3 3FX
B e f o r e :
HONORARY RECORDER OF MANCHESTER
sitting as a deputy High Court Judge
| THE QUEEN (ON THE APPLICATION OF HALEBANK PARISH COUNCIL)
|HALTON BOROUGH COUNCIL
PROLOGIS UK LIMITED
Vincent Fraser QC (instructed by John Tully, Solicitor Halton Borough Council)
for the Defendant
The Interested Party did not appear and was not represented
Hearing dates: 28th-29th May and 31st May 2012
Crown Copyright ©
JUDGE GILBART QC:
(a) the way in which HBC dealt with the planning application, and in particular with whether it afforded the PC sufficient opportunity to participate in the decision making process
(b) whether the proposal accords with the relevant polices of the statutory Development Plan
(c) whether the conditions attached to the planning permission were lawful
(d) whether HBC could have resolved that an obligation under section 106 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 be entered into in respect of the development.
(a) whether the decision by PC to institute these proceedings was lawfully reached, or was vitiated by the participation of members disqualified from doing so by reason of their having a personal interest, namely owning or occupying houses in areas which would be adversely affected by the presence of the new development;
(b) whether relief should be refused on the grounds that the PC failed to bring its claim promptly.
(a) Setting the scene(i) The history of the site and environs, including the grant of relevant planning permissions(ii) The statutory Development Plan and other documents- history, terms and status(1) HBC Unitary Development Plan ("UDP"); history, policies and reasons and justification(2) Supplementary Planning Document "3MG Mersey Multimodal Gateway" August 2009 (" SPD")(3) Plan appearing on front page of "3MG Mersey Multimodal Gateway-3MG-Project Update-HBC Field " circulated in June 2011;
(b) The Planning Application and the consultation process up to and including the Development Control Committee meeting on 30th August 2011(i) Events in summer 2011 before planning application and Environmental Statement submitted(ii) The Planning Application(iii) Events between submission and determination of application, including attempts to persuade HBC to postpone determination
(c) Issues on effectiveness of participation by PC(i) European Union Directives and domestic subordinate legislation(ii) Submissions of the parties(iii) Discussion and conclusions
(d) Interpretation and application of Development Plan policy by HBC(i) The planning officer's advice to the Committee(ii) Submissions of the parties(iii) Discussion and conclusions
(e) Issues relating to conditions, and to the absence of a section 106 obligation or agreement(i) Submissions of the parties(ii) Discussion and conclusions
(f) Issues on the institution of proceedings; validity and delay(i) Submissions of the parties(ii) Discussion and conclusions
(g) Overall conclusions
Topic A Setting the Scene
"26 hectares of predominantly greenfield land occupied by a number of agricultural tenant businesses."
" whether .there are sufficiently exceptional circumstances to justify deletion of Site 253 from the Green Belt and its allocation in this UDP "
" in view of the reasons for accepting the allocation of Site 253 this is not enough"
and recommending that the development had to be rail served, with adjacent dedicated rail sidings, and that it should require that the provision of sidings should be a condition of any planning permission.
" E7 DITTON STRATEGIC RAIL FREIGHT PARK
1 A phased strategic intermodal rail freight park will be developed on land at Ditton, Widnes in accordance with an overall master plan to be approved as a Supplementary Planning Document. Within the defined park Sites 253, 255 and 256 are allocated for development. Development will be permitted provided it complies with all of the following (and in the case of Site 253 subject also to compliance with paragraph 2 below)a. It is for use by businesses that would utilise the railway for the transportation of freight, and uses offering support services to themb.c.d.e. .
2 Development will not be permitted on (Site) 253 ..unless all the following also applya. It is part of a comprehensive proposal for a strategic rail freight park at Ditton in accordance with an agreed phasing planb. Development of the strategic intermodal rail freight park on the previously developed sites 255 and 256 .has already commenced in accordance with an agreed Phasing Plan set out in a Supplementary Planning Document.c. .d. A warehouse development proposal comes forward of larger than 25,000 square metres floorspace and of a sufficient size or character that would be incapable of being accommodated within the remaining areas in the defined Parke. It is designed to be rail served, including the provision of dedicated rail sidings adjacent to it.f. The layout of development incorporates measures actively to discourage the direct movement of goods vehicles from the site to the local road network in the Halebank area. In order to achieve this aim a road system shall be provided to connect Sites 253, 255 and 256 where they are divided by public highways or railway lines."
" sets out safeguards needed to ensure that the development takes place in a comprehensive manner, including the development of the previously developed areas in advance of development of the greenfield areas. The greenfield site 253 should not be developed in isolation or before the other areas of the proposed Rail Freight park. It is considered to be the key to facilitating the reuse and regeneration of currently contaminated and unattractive previously used land in the immediate area that would otherwise remain as such. The provision of railway sidings will be required as part of any proposal for the development of Site 253. This requirement will be the subject of conditions of any planning permission for Site 253."
(1) "Supplementary Planning Document" (" SPD")
(i) This is dated August 2009. It is supplementary planning guidance. It describes itself (1.4) as being based on the UDP policies and "(1.6) in addition the SPD is
" based upon the contents of the "Ditton Strategic Rail Freight Park Masterplan and Landscape Strategy and Design Guide that were adopted by the Council in December 2004. Whilst this SPD is a stand alone document it nevertheless cross refers to the Masterplan and Design Guide and accordingly the three documents should be read together to get a full picture of the vision and requirements for the area."
In fact, as appears below, HBC conceded during the hearing that no Masterplan had ever been adopted.
(ii) The SPD makes many references to the Masterplan. It states at paragraph 5.1 that
" the Masterplan sets the context for the main development framework of the SPD. The Masterplan describes the vision for the area "
(iii) It identifies individual sites identified as Sites A to T for particular uses. The most appropriate use for Site 253 (called Site A) is identified as
" A warehouse development ..larger than 25,000 sq m that is designed to be rail served, including the provision of dedicated rail sidings to it, in accordance with (UDP) Policy E7."
Sites 255 and 256 are also identified for
" Businesses that would utilise the railway for the transportation of freight and uses offering support services to them in accordance with Policy E7."
(iv) The SPD contains no proposals map. The closest one gets to a plan of allocations is an A4 map with sites A- T being identified by small roundels, with the sites' boundaries being shown.
(v) It contains a Phasing chapter, which describes the phasing programme as
" necessary for the SPD to comply with Policy E7 of the Halton UDP."
It goes on;
"The phasing of development and infrastructure is as follows
(1) Development should commence on Site 255 in accordance with planning permissions granted for rail freight development.
(2) Design and planning permission for the rail-served warehouse on Site 253.
The phases of infrastructure are as follows but are not necessarily in sequential order
- Design and planning permission for rail sidings on Site 256
- Sludge main pipeline diversion on Site 253
- Implementation of structural landscaping on Site 253, in accordance with the planning permission
- Design and planning permission for road and link to primary route network to service Site 253
- Construction of rail sidings of Site 256
- Construction of link to primary road network to service Site 253."
Topic B The Planning Application and the consultation process up to and including the Development Control Committee meeting on 30th August 2011
" a return of £1.78 million."
Evidence from Ms Macdonald in her witness statement was that would not represent a profit, but a recoupment of money already spent on the project, or of money which it would spend on it.
"On 20th June the Council Leader and Council Officers met with (PUK) and the (unsecured) Customer. Developments of this kind are very rare in the Borough and as such, high importance is placed on them and they are afforded priority status as there are few opportunities available to create this number of jobs. Developments of this kind are time critical particularly due to retail trading patterns but also in this case as work needs to be undertaken on the national Rail Network and obtaining rail possessions have to be programmed into the project well in advance. The Customer and (PUK) expressed concern over the tight construction programme and asked if the Council were in a position to bring forward the Planning decision. The Council Leader agreed he would discuss the matter with colleagues. Following which I asked the Planning Officers A Plant and G Henry to consider the timetable and ascertain if the planning process could be progressed more speedily. It was agreed it could and still comply with the planning process. Consultation with the Chairman of the Development Committee Cllr P Nolan took place on 29th June and Cllr Nolan agreed that the Development Control Committee would be called on 30th August 2011 and that Officers would work to a new timetable."
"A meeting is formally called when the agenda is published. This was on 19th August 2011 for 30th August 2011."
(a) The PC, like many Councils, had no scheduled meeting in August
(b) It was a"massive application for a development of over 1 million square feet with associated infrastructure"proposing a"highly intensive 24/7 industrial use in close proximity to housing"accompanied by a very detailed Environmental Statement and other technical supporting documents, which" necessitates detailed scrutiny and consideration."
(c) The PC was"in the process of appointing professional planning consultants to help evaluate the application and specifically consider whether this application meets the very stringent pre-conditions set out in (the) UDP and the 3MG SPD with respect to potential development of Site 253"
(d) The PC had asked PUK to come to the September meeting of the PC, which request was under consideration.
(e) In the new spirit of localism, HBC's decision must be informed by a meaningful consultation process with the local elected body (the PC) and other stakeholders to offer informed and considered responses to" an important and complex planning proposal."
(f) HBC ought to avoid giving the appearance that it had expedited an application on a site it owned, and was part of an overall development actively sponsored by HBC.
(a) The information about the development had been in the public domain for some time
(b) There had been a public exhibition attended by the PC on 27th June 2011
(c) The news letter had been circulated in June 2011 (described above)
(d) The pre-application consultation undertaken by the applicant, combined with the materials sent with the formal consultation letter of 26th July (sic- it had been sent on 21st July) provided more than sufficient information for the PC to respond within the time given
(e) Other statutory consultees had already responded
(f) He therefore saw no reason to agree to the extension requested.
(a) No other parish council in the Borough had August meetings. The timetable for comments was"uniquely untimely, inconvenient and unreasonable"
(b) The PC was unwilling to proceed with a meeting until such time as it received clarification on the question of councillors' interests
(c) The application was large and complex supported by an ES and other technical documentation. The PC needed professional advice before responding formally after a meeting, which was not possible given the" extremely truncated consultation and determination period"
(d) There was a great deal of local opposition. It was important that this very substantial project should be considered to proper democratic scrutiny
(e) The HBC officers had failed to recognise the significance of the tests in the UDP , which set a sequential approach. It was disturbing that when the PC sought information from the developer which would have informed them on whether the tests had been met, the developer withdrew its agreement to attend a meeting
(f) It was unreasonable to impose the statutory minimum period for consultation
(g) It would be unreasonable not to defer the Committee meeting for one month.
(a) The first (for an extension of the consultation period) was refused by an officer with no authority to do so;
(b) The second received no response;
(c) The third, which requested a deferment, was reported to the Committee. There is no evidence that any decision was taken about it, and if there were a decision to reject it, any reasoning at all to support it.
(a) It argued that the conditions set out in Policy E7 and in the SPD for the development of the site had not been met, and in particular the conditions relating to the sequential phasing of development on the brownfield sites 255 and 256
(b) The development would not be part of the wider 3MG operation, and did not satisfy the requirement to be "part of a strategic rail freight park", having no direct road access to other parts of the 3MG operation, and there being no evidence that the activities and operations within it were related to the availability of rail access, thereby not being in accordance with Policy E7.
"It was considered that the Policy context as a whole needed reviewing in terms of the aims and principles of the Policy,"
" The lack of access via rail to the 3MG park."
It is concerning that the author of the Minutes could imagine that that is a fair summary. In fact Mr Henry had addressed the two issues raised; whether he did so in a way consistent with policy E7 and the SPD is a subject I shall return to.
"have committed (sic)to make substantial contributions by means of a Development Agreement. The position of the Council as landowner is considered to afford a significant degree of control in this regard."
" The Council is anxious to put on record the same conditions that would apply to any other landowner or developer and these will therefore be covered by a development agreement. The terms of that development agreement will therefore include requirements to construct the principle (sic) access road and rail connectivity to the site ;costs for off site highway works .off site landscaping and habitat creation ."
In fact, on 30th June 2011, a meeting had taken place of the 3MG Executive Sub Board, a Committee of HBC, where the report of the Chief Executive, which described the development agreement, was made the subject of a resolution preventing disclosure pursuant to section 100A(4) of the Local Government Act 1972. No copy of that development agreement has actually been disclosed by HBC at any stage.
Topic C Issues on effectiveness of participation by PC(i) European Union Directives and domestic subordinate legislation(ii) Submissions of the parties(iii) Discussion and conclusions
European Union Directives and domestic subordinate legislation
Article 41. Subject to Article 2 (3), projects listed in Annex I shall be made subject to an assessment in accordance with Articles 5 to 10.
2. Subject to Article 2 (3), for projects listed in Annex II, the Member States shall determine through:(a) a case-by-case examination,or(b) thresholds or criteria set by the Member State
whether the project shall be made subject to an assessment in accordance with Articles 5 to 10.
Member States may decide to apply both procedures referred to in (a) and (b).
3. When a case-by-case examination is carried out or thresholds or criteria are set for the purpose of paragraph 2, the relevant selection criteria set out in Annex III shall be taken into account.
4. Member States shall ensure that the determination made by the competent authorities under paragraph 2 is made available to the public.`
1. Member States shall take the measures necessary to ensure that the authorities likely to be concerned by the project by reason of their specific environmental responsibilities are given an opportunity to express their opinion on the request for development consent. Member States shall designate the authorities to be consulted for this purpose in general terms or in each case when the request for consent is made. The information gathered pursuant to Article 5 shall be forwarded to these authorities. Detailed arrangements for consultation shall be laid down by the Member States.
2. The public shall be informed, whether by public notices or other appropriate means such as electronic media where available, of the following matters early in the environmental decision-making procedures referred to in Article 2(2) and, at the latest, as soon as information can reasonably be provided:(a) the request for development consent;(b) the fact that the project is subject to an environmental impact assessment procedure and, where relevant, the fact that Article 7 applies;(c) details of the competent authorities responsible for taking the decision, those from which relevant information can be obtained, those to which comments or questions can be submitted, and details of the time schedule for transmitting comments or questions;(d) the nature of possible decisions or, where there is one, the draft decision;(e) an indication of the availability of the information gathered pursuant to Article 5;(f) an indication of the times and places where and means by which the relevant information will be made available;(g) details of the arrangements for public participation made pursuant to paragraph 5 of this Article.
3. Member States shall ensure that, within reasonable time-frames, the following is made available to the public concerned:(a) any information gathered pursuant to Article 5;(b) in accordance with national legislation, the main reports and advice issued to the competent authority or authorities at the time when the public concerned is informed in accordance with paragraph 2 of this Article;(c) in accordance with the provisions of Directive 2003/4/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2003 on public access to environmental information(9), information other than that referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article which is relevant for the decision in accordance with Article 8 and which only becomes available after the time the public concerned was informed in accordance with paragraph 2 of this Article.
4. The public concerned shall be given early and effective opportunities to participate in the environmental decision-making procedures referred to in Article 2(2) and shall, for that purpose, be entitled to express comments and opinions when all options are open to the competent authority or authorities before the decision on the request for development consent is taken.
5. The detailed arrangements for informing the public (for example by bill posting within a certain radius or publication in local newspapers) and for consulting the public concerned (for example by written submissions or by way of a public inquiry) shall be determined by the Member States.
6. Reasonable time-frames for the different phases shall be provided, allowing sufficient time for informing the public and for the public concerned to prepare and participate effectively in environmental decision-making subject to the provisions of this Article."
13 Publicity for applications for planning permission
This section has no associated Explanatory Memorandum
(1) An application for planning permission shall be publicised by the local planning authority to which the application is made in the manner prescribed by this article.
(2) In the case of an application for planning permission for development which
(a)is an EIA application accompanied by an environmental statement;
(b)does not accord with the provisions of the development plan in force in the area in which the land to which the application relates is situated; or
the application shall be publicised in the manner specified in paragraph (3).
(3) An application falling within paragraph (2) ("a paragraph (2) application") shall be publicised in accordance with the requirements in `paragraph (7) and by giving requisite notice
(a)by site display in at least one place on or near the land to which the application relates for not less than 21 days; and
(b) by publication of the notice in a newspaper circulating in the locality in which the land to which the application relates is situated.
23 Representations by parish council before determination of applicationThis section has no associated Explanatory Memorandum
(1) Where the council of a parish are given information in relation to an application pursuant to paragraph 8(1) of Schedule 1 to the 1990 Act (local planning authorities: distribution of functions), they shall, as soon as practicable, notify the local planning authority who are determining the application whether they propose to make any representations about the manner in which the application should be determined, and shall make any representations to that authority within 21 days of the notification to them of the application.
(2) A local planning authority shall not determine any application in respect of which a parish are required to be given information before
(a) the council of the parish inform them that they do not propose to make any representations;
(b) representations are made by that council; or
(c) the period of 21 days mentioned in paragraph (1) has elapsed,
whichever shall first occur; and in determining the application the authority shall take into account any representations received from the council of the parish.
(3) The appropriate authority shall notify the council of the parish of
(a) the terms of the decision on any such application; or
(b) where the application is referred to the Secretary of State
(i) the date when it was so referred; and
(ii) when notified to the appropriate authority, the terms of the Secretary of State's decision.
(4) For the purposes of paragraph (3), the "appropriate authority" is
(d) in any other case, the district planning authority.
28 Representations to be taken into account
This section has no associated Explanatory Memorandum
(1) A local planning authority shall, in determining an application for planning permission, take into account any representations made, where any notice of, or information about, the application has been
(a) given by site display under article 11 or 13, within 21 days beginning with the date when the notice was first displayed by site display;
(c) published in a newspaper under article 11 or 13 or on a website under article 13, within the period of 14 days beginning with the date on which the notice or information was published,
and the representations and periods in this article are representations and periods prescribed for the purposes of section 71(2) (a) of the 1990 Act (consultations in connection with determinations under section 70).
29 Time periods for decisionThis section has no associated Explanatory Memorandum
(1) Subject to paragraph (7), where a valid application has been received by a local planning authority, they shall within the period specified or referred to in paragraph (2) give the applicant notice of their decision or determination or notice that the application has been referred to the Secretary of State.
(2) The period specified or referred to in this paragraph is
(a)in relation to an application for major development, 13 weeks beginning with the day immediately following that on which the application is received by the local planning authority;
(b)in relation to an application for development which is not major development, 8 weeks beginning with the day immediately following that on which the application is received by the local planning authority; or
(c)in relation to any development, unless the applicant has already given notice of appeal to the Secretary of State, such extended period as may be agreed in writing between the applicant and the local planning authority.
(7) Subject to paragraph (8), a local planning authority shall not determine an application for planning permission, where any notice of, or information about, the application has been
(a) given by site display under article 11 or 13, before the end of the period of 21 days beginning with the date when the notice was first displayed by site display;
(c) published in a newspaper under article 11 or 13 or on a website under article 13, within the period of 14 days beginning with the date on which the notice or information was published,
and the periods in this paragraph are periods prescribed for the purposes of section 71(1) of the 1990 Act (consultations in connection with determinations under section 70).
(8) Where, under paragraph (7), more than one of the prescribed periods applies, the local planning authority shall not determine the application before the end of the later or latest of such periods."
(a) 1.0 "This document is the Halton Borough Council Statement of Community Involvement (SCI) and makes up the part of the LDF" (Local Development Framework) " that encourages the best possible involvement of the public when adopting new plans or determining planning applications.
(b) 1.1 " this SCI outlines the best practice of when to consult, who to consult and how to consult. At the time of writing this document (HBC) consultation practice currently surpasses government guidance so this document formalises and enhances current practice Once adopted the Council will be required to comply with the guidance set out in this document.
(c) 1.2 " .It gives a level of certainty to key stakeholders and the general public as to how they can be involved in each stage of the plan making and development process."
(d) 1.5 " .the SCI sets out the standards by which the Council is committed to achieving in involving all stakeholders in the local planning process."
(e) 2.0 Under the heading "Vision" it states that" the Council will(iii) use the correct consultation method to suit the situation and achieve consensus(vii) Enable a greater level of participation in decision making for local people."
(f) Under the heading " Standards of Good Practice" it states5.0 "The Cabinet Office has disseminated a code of good practice on consultation. Where possible (HBC) will use this guidance for their consultation. These criteria are summarised belowConsultation should be undertaken widely throughout the process ..5.1 Further information on the consultation criteria can be found at the Cabinet Office website (address given)"
(g) Under the Heading " Planning Applications", appears"10.1 .It is vital that ..discussion and consultation is held in an open and impartial manner. .This section of the SCI will detail how the Council intends to consult on all planning applications ..10.2 Developments may take several forms and will require varying levels of public consultation according to the size and scale of the proposal.10.4 Tier 2 development" (of which the development in question was one) are defined as "those major developments which are likely to require wider community involvement .(An accompanying table shows that consultation with Parish Councils wasappropriate on a Tier 2 application).
(h) Under the heading " Further Information" appears"Pre-Application11.2 any developer wishing to undertake consultation before applying for planning permission Upon undertaking the consultation exercise the Council would request that developers bear the following in mind .Before consultation begins you should inform in advance Councillors, Parish Councils and neighbouring individuals.""Development Control Process11.5 Where required Statutory consultees are consulted on planning applications and given 21 days to respond "
(i) In section 16, "target groups" include statutory bodies, and PC is listed as a "specific consultation body" in Appendix C.
"Duration of consultation exercises: Consultations should normally last for at least 12 weeks with consideration given to longer timescales where feasible and sensible."
That is repeated at section 2, which includes paragraph 2.1"If a consultation exercise is to take place over a period when consultees are less able to respond, e.g. over the summer or Christmas break, or if the policy under consideration is particularly complex, consideration should be given to the feasibility of allowing a longer period for the consultation."
Submissions of the Parties
(a) The courts have stressed that where there is a site where the planning authority has an interest, it must be particularly scrupulous in the way it deals with any planning application ; see R v Teesside DC ex p Wm Morrison Supermarkets  JPL 23@44 per Sedley J.
(b) The EU Directive is of direct effect. The fact that the UK has enacted the DMPO 2010 with its specified time periods, does not deprive Article 6 of effect where the periods prescribed (which are minima, but not more than that) are insufficient to provide adequate consultation. Specific reference was made to the terms of Article 6(6).
(c) The Court of Appeal decision in R(Majed) v Camden LBC  EWCA Civ 1029 (Sullivan LJ) shows that a legitimate expectation arising from the SCI can be relied on, even though the statutory timetable has been complied with.
(d) The practice of HBC was to consult the Parish Council. That is also its policy in the SCI. The effect of R v N and E Devon Health Authority ex p Coughlan  QB 213 @108 is that adequate time must be given for the response by a consultee, and the response conscientiously taken into account.
(e) HBC had in its SCI adopted the Cabinet Office guidance. It claimed in pre application correspondence (i.e. before the application for judicial review) that it had followed the Cabinet Office Guidance. It failed to follow the guidance in(i) insisting on consultation during August (school holidays) when it knew that there would be no PC meetings(ii) making no allowance for the fact that it was a large complex development.
(f) HBC failed to have any regard to what was expected of it by the SCI in dealing with consultations.
(g) HBC had discretion as to when the planning application should be scheduled for determination. That discretion should be exercised in a manner consistent with the objectives of ensuring effective participation of the public and stakeholders and consistently with the principles of fairness.
(h) The failure to allow the PC effective participation was unlawful, because(i) HBC failed to facilitate effective public participation in accordance with the obligations under Article 6 of the Directive(ii) HBC failed allow the PC an effective opportunity to participate in the planning application, contrary to the legitimate expectation created by the SCI that it would be given a fair opportunity to participate in the planning process
(i) It was perverse of HBC to deny the PC an effective opportunity to participate in the decision making process, by declining to defer the Committee meeting when doing so would have involved no breach of the 13 week "limit" derived from the 2010 regulations.
(a) The proposed development would be of great benefit to the area and generate 1000 jobs. It was a time critical development opportunity . The end user had wanted to move into the premises by October 2012. The Council would not be making a profit from the development;
(b) In fact 4 of the 5 members of the PC had objected to the proposal, and sent in letters accordingly. The 4 members have a long history of opposing the application;
(c) The PC could have held a meeting. Some members were away, but at locations (Wales, Blackpool and the Lake District) whence they could have travelled back for a meeting;
(d) There was nothing improper or unreasonable in an earlier Committee date being arranged.
(e) Mr Gibbs considered the matter on 9th and 10th August 2011 and declined to extend the consultation period (this submission was made before it became clear that Mr Gibbs had no authority to deal with the request)
(f) The request of the PC of 30th August 2011 was "considered in full by the Committee before it considered the application."
(g) Planning law is contained in a comprehensive statutory code; see Pioneer Aggregates Ltd v Secretary of State for the Environment  1 AC 132@141 B-C per Lord Scarman, and Henry Boot Homes Ltd v Bassetlaw DC  1 P & CR 372@ paragraphs 46-8;
(h) The relevant measures for public consultation (including time-frames) are left to member states by Article 6 of the EIA Directive. No one suggests- least of all the PC- that the requirements of the EIA Directive have been transposed incorrectly into the DMPO 2010 or the EIA Regs;
(i) Article 23 of the DMPO 2010 only applies if the parish council has asked to be notified- see Town and Country Planning Act 1990 Schedule 1 paragraph 8(1);
(j) Even if Article 23 applied, the parish council must give notice within 21 days of the notification of the application. The planning authority could determine the application within 21 days- see DMPO 2010 Article 23(2) ;
(k) It is therefore considered that 21 days is adequate for a parish council to make representations;
(l) Circular 9/95 advises authorities that there is no obligation to delay consideration until comments have been received from consultees, and that authorities should adhere to deadlines for consultation so far as reasonably practicable;
(m) Article 28(1) of DMPO 2010 requires a planning authority to consider representations received within the periods set out of 21 days from service of notice on relevant owners and occupiers and 14 days from advertisement in a newspaper. However HBC accepted that its practice was to consider any representations made before determination;
(n) The period in Article 29(2(a), i.e. 13 weeks, is to provide for a right of appeal in the event of non-determination. It is not part of the provisions dealing with consultation;
(o) It is entirely a matter for the discretion of the planning authority whether to delay its decision beyond the statutory minimum period. In exercising its discretion it may conclude that the specified periods comply with the purpose of ensuring effective public participation in the process and it should take into account the importance of expeditious determination of planning applications;
(p) It follows from the above that HBC complied with the statutory code;
(q) The PC has not identified what period it says it should have had to make representations;
(r) HBC was entitled to consider that the PC had sufficient time to make representations (this submission was made before the absence of authority for Mr Gibb's E mail was established). Further the PC could have submitted representations after the date of the Committee meeting. HBC would have taken them into account before issuing the notice on 16th September 2011;
(s) The arguments advanced on the interpretation of Policy E7 could have been prepared expeditiously;
(t) The proposal had been in the public domain earlier, and reference was made to the newsletter which had been distributed, and to the exhibition;
(u) The consultation exercise complied with the SCI. Nothing in the SCI commits HBC to allow longer periods for consultation. The Cabinet Office guidance only provides for consideration to be given for a longer consultation period. HBC considered it three times and rejected it (a submission made before Mr Gibbs' lack of authority was conceded). It is not accepted that the development was particularly complex;
(v) There is no practice identified which could give rise to any legitimate expectation in this case.
(i) a breach of Article 6 of the Directive, or
(ii) a failure to conduct its consultation process in the manner which it said it would (i.e. a matter of legitimate expectation).
"1. Member States shall take the measures necessary to ensure that the authorities likely to be concerned by the project by reason of their specific environmental responsibilities are given an opportunity to express their opinion on the request for development consent,
4. The public concerned shall be given early and effective opportunities to participate in the environmental decision-making procedures referred to in Article 2(2) and shall, for that purpose, be entitled to express comments and opinions when all options are open to the competent authority or authorities before the decision on the request for development consent is taken.
6. Reasonable time-frames for the different phases shall be provided, allowing sufficient time for informing the public and for the public concerned to prepare and participate effectively in environmental decision-making subject to the provisions of this Article"
can be breached even where domestic regulations have been produced with whose timescales for the minimum period of consultation the Council complied ?
" If a consultation exercise is to take place over a period when consultees are less able to respond, e.g. over the summer or Christmas break, or if the policy under consideration is particularly complex, consideration should be given to the feasibility of allowing a longer period for the consultation."
(a) The members of the Parish Council could have met;
(b) The proposal was well known;
(c) The point on the interpretation of the UDP was a straightforward one requiring little time being spent on drawing representations.
He submits that therefore no prejudice was caused, and the time permitted was adequate.
Topic D Interpretation and application of Development Plan policy by HBC
(i) The planning officer's advice to the Committee
(ii) Submissions of the parties
(iii) Discussion and conclusions
The site is approximately 32 ha .and identified as Site 253 with surrounding land contained within the Potential Extent (sic) of the DSRFP as defined by the Halton (UDP)
(UDP)DESIGNATION, KEY POLICIES AND SUSTAINABILITY OBJECTIVES
The site lies within an area designated as a Regional Investment Site for the development of the Ditton Strategic Rail Freight Park in the (UDP). .Policies E7 Ditton Strategic Rail Freight Park .(is) considered to be of relevance .Supplementary Planning Documents relating to 3MG Mersey Multimodal Gateway ..(is) also of relevance.
OBSERVATIONS AND ISSUES
The proposed development site forms the western area of the ..(DSFRP) as defined by the (UDP)
The site is identified in the (UDP) on the proposals map and by Policy S 20 as within an area identified as a Regional Investment Site for the development of Ditton Strategic Rail Freight Park."
After referring to the UDP Inquiry Inspector's report it went on to describe a "detailed planning policy framework" including a "Masterplan and Supplementary Planning Document covering the 3MG area. It then continued
" UDP Policy E7 supports the phased development of a strategic intermodal rail freight park identifying a core area of three key sites for development subject to clearly defined criteria. These can be summarised as follows
- It is for use by businesses which utilise rail and support services
- High quality development suited to companies of regional and national distribution importance giving rise to new employment
- It would not prejudice wider rail improvements
- Demonstration that it would not have a significant adverse impact on the local transport networks and trunk road network
- Detailed Policy Tests in relation to Site 253.
A detailed Rail Report ..describes how the rail sidings proposed as part of the application for the site and describes how this will relate to and function along side the rail reception sidings that have already been approved."
At a later stage it continued
" Policy considerations have been subject to detailed assessment by the Councils Local Development Framework Principle (sic) Officer who has confirmed that ..the proposal has had good regard to the site specific polices of the UDP and will therefore assist in achieving the aims of E7 in particular ..
..The application proposals are considered to be a natural progression of a lengthy planning process which resulted in the allocation of the site through the UDP process and the subsequent and emerging planning policy documents and statements. The proposals are considered to accord with the planning policy framework both current and emerging for the Borough, at a regional and at a national level and it is not considered that objections could be sustained on policy grounds."
After considering various aspects of the development and its impacts, the Report concluded as follows
" Policy E7 locates the site within the DSRFP, a phased strategic inter-modal freight park to be used by businesses of national or regional distribution importance deigned to have the capability to utilise the railway for the transportation of freight or provide supporting services. Development within the DSFRP is required to demonstrate that it will create employment opportunities for local residents and contribute to urban regeneration without adverse impact on the environment, the amenity of the local population or local transport, trunk and rail networks. In addition Policy E7 sets down a range of respective policies specific to Site 253 intended to ensure the proper planning and character of the development and to minimise the impact of the development on local communities, the environment and the surrounding road network. .The applicant and the Council have committed to make substantial contributions by means of a Development Agreement. The position of the landowner is considered to afford a significant degree of control in this regard. The proposals are considered to accord with local and national policy and the application is therefore recommended for approval."
" .In this regard it is considered that we need to review the policy context as a whole in terms of the aims and principles of the wider policy context and the application proposals have been assessed on that basis. The policy tests in the UDP must themselves be considered in (the) context of the adopted Supplementary Planning Document and the phasing plan contained within that document. That SPD was adopted by the Council in 2009, is considered to provide allowance for flexibility in phasing and has not been challenged. Planning permission is in place for dedicated rail sidings to serve the whole of the 3MG Park and the site is linked to the wider park by the highway network. The application contains a dedicated siding within the site and workable proposals for rail connectivity .operational connectivity is subject to procedures and agreement by Network Rail .
Rail related development is considered to have commenced on Site 255 through development of the O'Connors Rail Terminal. The Council is currently considering a planning application by Stobarts for the remainder of site 255 relating to approximately 33 ha of warehouse provision. That application is in outline but .must be viewed as commitment to ongoing development on that site.
It is against that backdrop that the development has been considered to accord with the development plan and planning p[policy at a local and national level."
"had been taken having regard to the relevant policies and proposals in the Halton (UDP) and to further material planning considerations"
"In particular the development would make a significant contribution to the sustainable growth and regeneration of the area, creating significant employment opportunities and encouraging transportation of goods by rail through the ongoing development and expansion of the DSFRP in accordance with Policy E7 of the Halton (UDP) .."
(a) The statutory development plan for the purposes of section 38(6) of PCPA 2004 and section 70 of TCPA 1990 is the UDP. It follows that a planning application must be determined in accordance with it unless material considerations indicate otherwise (section 38(6) PCPA 2004)
(b) The SPD is a material consideration, but it cannot have the status of the development plan, and one cannot use it to interpret the Development Plan.
(c) A local planning authority must proceed on a proper understanding of the development plan: see Lord Reed in Tesco Stores Ltd v Dundee City Council  UKSC 13 at paragraphs 17- 23, citing Gransden and Co v Secretary of State for the Environment  54 P & CR 86 @94 per Woolf J and Horsham DC v Secretary of State for the Environment  63 P & CR 219 @225-6 per Nolan LJ. A failure by a decision maker to interpret policy properly makes the decision open to challenge, citing City of Edinburgh Council v Secretary of State for Scotland  SC (HL 33,  1 WLR 1447 at 44 /1459 per Lord Clyde. Policy statements must be interpreted objectively in accordance with the language used, and always in its proper context.
(d) Interpretation is not a matter for the planning authority which can only be challenged on the basis of reasonableness, but is a matter for the court. However judgements on application of the policy to factual situations can often be a matter for the judgement of the local planning authority- see Tesco v Dundee at paragraphs 20 and 23.
(e) The SPD cannot be used to interpret the UDP policy;
(f) The UDP requires that development at Site 253 meets the following criteria among others(i) Is part of a strategic inter-modal freight park (UDP E7 (1))(ii) Is for use by a business which would utilise the railway for the transportation of freight (UDP E7 (1)(a))(iii) Is only permitted once all the requirements in UDP E7 (2) also apply, including:(1) It is part of a comprehensive proposal for a strategic freight park at Ditton in accordance with an agreed phasing plan (UDP E7(2))(2) Development of the strategic intermodal freight park on the previously developed sites 255 and 256 has already commenced in accordance with an agreed phasing plan set out in a Supplementary Planning Document (E7 (2)(b))(3) It is designed to be rail served, including the provision of dedicated rail sidings adjacent to it (E7 (2)(e))(4) The layout incorporates measures actively to discourage the direct movement of goods vehicles from the site to the local road network in the Halebank area. In order to achieve this aim a road system shall be provided to connect Sites 253, 255 and 256 where they are divided by public highways or railway lines (UDP E7(2)(f)).(iv) No development has started on site 256, and the development on Site 255 was permitted before the policy was coined. Only an outline application had been made on Site 255. The development on Site 255 is not part of a comprehensive proposal within the meaning of the policy. It follows that the proposal is not in accordance with the Development Plan(v) The proposal includes no road connection complying with UDP E7(2)(f).
(a) The interpretation of UDP policy was not a point taken by the claimant PC in its letters before action.
(b) The claim only referred to alleged breaches of policies E7(2)(a) and (b)
(c) Tesco Stores Ltd v Dundee City Council  UKSC 13 does not prevent a purposive construction being adopted of a development plan policy.
(d) The phasing had been described in what he at first called the "masterplan" which was the document whose provenance later turned out to be entirely unknown. However he went on to submit that the SPD set out the relevant position. However while the " Masterplan" was adopted for consultation purposes in December 2004 , no-one could trace what had happened to it thereafter. He accepted that it showed broad uses, but not proposed buildings.
(e) The effect of Chapters 9 and 10 of the SPD and its plan 5 (the one entitled "Key Development Opportunities" amounted to a comprehensive proposal as required by the UDP E7(2);
(f) Therefore the grant of permission for development on Site 253 satisfies the requirements of E7 (2)(a);
(g) The phasing required by E7(2)(b) is provided by the Chapter 10 of the SPD;
(h) Site 255 has been developed in part as a rail hub. There has been commencement within Site 255 so as to comply with the policy.
(i) The SPD does not require that Site 256 is developed before permission is granted on Site 253. It was accepted that development had not commenced on Site 256. The railway sidings could not be provided on Site 256 without some development of railway sidings within Site 253. As properly interpreted, Policy E7 did not require that development commenced on Site 256 before permission was granted on Site 253. The policy test is passed if development of the strategic intermodal freight park has started on either Site 255 or Site 256.
(j) The lie of the land prevents direct road access between Sites 255, 256 and 253. The road system already permitted, which will serve the application site, provides a direct link to the primary road network and avoids any introduction of traffic onto local roads.
(a) Is there a comprehensive proposal for a strategic rail freight park of which the proposed development of Site 253 would form part ?
(b) Does the UDP permit Site 253 to be granted permission before development of the specified kind has started on both Sites 255 and 256, or on one or the other ?
Topic E Issues relating to conditions, and to the absence of a section 106 obligation or agreement
(ii) Submissions of the parties
(iii) Discussion and conclusions
(a) Condition 30: " No part of the development shall be brought into use until a scheme of noise attenuation and mitigation has been implemented with details submitted to and agreed in writing by the Local Planning Authority. Unless the Local Planning Authority agree to any variation, such scheme shall be designed to ensure that noise emitted from the site shall be mitigated and attenuated in line with BS 4142 methodology and principles in relation to properties to the south west of the site on Halegate Road including (named properties) ..Such a scheme as is agreed and implemented shall be so maintained."
(b) Condition 31; " No part of the use hereby approved shall be commenced until a scheme of off-site works has been carried out and made available to provide vehicular access to and aggress from the site via the A 562/A 5300 ..junction, unless otherwise agreed by the Local Planning Authority. That scheme shall be in accordance with earlier permissions (numbers given) unless otherwise agreed by the Local Planning Authority."
(c) Condition 32; " No part of the building hereby approved shall be brought into use, or other such timings as may be agreed by the Local Planning Authority, until the dedicated rail siding has been constructed within the application site in accordance with the approved Plans P003 Rev A or such other scheme as is agreed in writing by the Local Planning Authority. The rail sidings shall thereafter be retained unless otherwise agreed with the Local Planning Authority."
" requirements to construct the principle (sic) access road and rail connectivity to the site, costs for highway works including cycle and pedestrian linkage, off site landscaping and habitat creation and management for ground nesting birds"
Submissions of the parties
(a) Conditions 30-32 contain " tailpiece" conditions by which HBC and the developer or subsequent occupier or owner could agree to vary the standards required, by informal agreement outside the scope for planning control. That would offend the principles set out in R (Midcounties Co-operative Ltd) v Wyre Forest DC [2009} EWHC 964 (Admin) per Ouseley J, and R(Waverley) v Wealden DC  EWHC 2083 per Rabinder Singh QC sitting as a deputy High Court Judge (as he then was);
(b) A development agreement is not available to the public for scrutiny as a section 106 obligation must be. The UDP expected that section 106 obligations would be made;
(c) It was wrong to say that an obligation could not be entered into by HBC. Even if PUK had no interest at the time of the consideration of the application, HBC could have resolved to grant permission, provided that PUK took an interest in the land, and then entered in to an agreement.
(a) Negative conditions have long been held to be lawful, citing Grampian Regional Council v City of Aberdeen  SC 9HL) 58  47 P & CR 633. Conditions 30-32 are " Grampian" conditions;
(b) The Midcounties Co-Op v Wyre Forest DC decision does not establish that all tailpiece conditions are unacceptable. The tailpiece condition struck down there related to the amount of floorspace permitted. These conditions do not affect the nature or extent of the development permitted- see R(Yorkcourt Properties Ltd v Wakefield MBC  EWHC 2394 (Admin) (per HHJ Waksman QC sitting as a deputy High Court Judge);
(c) None of the "tailpieces" are unlawful, but in any event each can be excised from the condition;
(d) Only a person with an interest in land can enter into an obligation under section 106, and it must be enforceable see section 106(3). HBC was entitled to rely on the development agreement.
Discussion and Conclusions
(a) The first related to the limits placed on retail floorspace in an outline permission for a new superstore. The condition defined the maximum amounts of floorspace permitted and continued " unless otherwise agreed in writing with the Local Planning Authority." Ouseley J held (see paragraph 70) that the effect of the tailpiece was to enable development to take place" which could be very different in scale or impact from that applied for, assessed or permitted, and it enables it to be created by means wholly outside any statutory process"
(b) The second related to a " tailpiece" which qualified a condition identifying the drawings in accordance with which the development was to be carried out. It added" unless other minor variations are agreed in writing after the date of this permission and before implementation with the Local Planning Authority"
" which could be very different in scale or impact from that applied for, assessed or permitted, and it enables it to be created by means wholly outside any statutory process"
79. I do not regard this tailpiece as unlawful. Its clear scope is to enable "minor variations" to an obligation otherwise to develop "in strict accordance" with plans and drawings. Both those parts of the condition operate to limit the flexibility which the tailpiece provides.
80. Although there is a marked trend in judicial decisions in planning cases away from private law concepts, and Henry Boot reflects that, the starting point for the analysis in Lever (Finance) and the basis of the decision in Henry Boot means that scope exists, albeit extremely limited, to make immaterial variations, and cannot be regarded as unlawful. Henry Boot recognises the existence of some extremely limited scope to make minor variations without explaining its origin.
81. In my judgment, this scope covers at least those circumstances in which the change is immaterial in the sense that no reasonable local planning authority could refuse it, or could take enforcement proceedings lawfully in respect of its implementation. I do not exclude other jurisprudential bases. Mr Harris instances circumstances where the provisions of a 278 Highways Act 1980 agreement might require minor adjustments to permitted road works, but this simply illustrates the usefulness of the existence of such an extremely limited power without providing its jurisprudential source. This, in my judgment, can only lie in the application of public law principles to the actions of the local planning authority or to a proper understanding of what a planning permission means, as found by Lord Denning in the Lever (Finance) case.
82. Even if the language of the tailpiece to condition 4 is not precisely the language of Henry Boot, it is sufficiently close for it to be clear that its reach, properly interpreted, is lawful. If unlawful advantage is taken of it by actions which go beyond its lawful reach that itself is remediable. Otherwise it is appropriate to construe the condition so as to save it. No definition of "minor" is necessary, any more than it is of other phrases of perhaps uncertain reach. It is commonplace for words of uncertain reach in the abstract to be made certain through judgment and application in planning, as in public law generally. This tailpiece is not unlawful."
46. It seems to me that all these arguments are interrelated, at least to some extent. If, as Mr Lowe, Q.C., submits on behalf of the respondent, we now have a comprehensive code of planning control and the local planning authority does not have the power to waive in an informal way the need for compliance with a condition, the circumstances in which a legitimate expectation of the type suggested here will arise on the part of a developer because of the conduct of the authority will be very exceptional.
47. It has long been recognised at the highest level that planning law is contained in a comprehensive code. In 1984, in Pioneer Aggregates Ltd v Secretary of State for the Environment  1 A.C. 132, Lord Scarman, with whom the rest of the House of Lords agreed, emphasised that fact and said at page 141 B.C.:
"... if the statute law covers the situation, it will be an impermissible exercise of the judicial function to go beyond the statutory provision by applying such principles merely because they may appear to achieve a fairer solution to the problem being considered. "
48. The House of Lords was there dealing with the statutory code contained in the Town and Country Planning Act 1971. Since that time, as Sullivan J noted in the present case (para. 137), the code has become even more comprehensive. Of particular relevance for present purposes is the introduction by section 49 of the Housing and Planning Act 1986 of what is now section 73 of the 1990 Act. That provides a statutory mechanism by which a person can, in effect, seek a variation in a condition on a planning permission or the discharge of such a condition. It does so by providing for an application:
"for planning permission for the development of land without complying with conditions subject to which a previous planning permission was granted " (section 73(1))
49. Thus it is the case that (to use the language of Pioneer Aggregates) "statute law covers the situation" when a developer wishes to vary or discharge one or more conditions on a permission. As Sullivan J commented, this, together with the power to appeal against a condition in the first place or to obtain retrospective permission under section 73A, builds in a considerable degree of flexibility to the statutory code (see paras 137 140 of his judgment). I would add that the reality is that developers of experience, such as the appellant, also generally seek to negotiate the form of conditions with the local planning authority before any permission is granted.
50. But the section 73 procedure has an additional importance. Because it operates by means of providing for an application to be made for "planning permission" without certain conditions previously imposed, it imports (as Mr Holgate accepts) the safeguards for third parties and the public generally which apply to applications for planning permission under the Act. Thus, although it is right that an application seeking approval under a condition does not attract the statutory provisions concerning publicity and consultation, an application under section 73 to vary or discharge such an existing condition does. Such an application has to be entered on the planning register, available to the public. Indeed, it can be called in by the Secretary of State for his own determination. The statutory procedure ensures that a condition requiring matters to be dealt with before development begins cannot be varied or discharged without an opportunity for the public to be informed and to object or make other representation. So the public is engaged in that statutory process.
51. In those circumstances, the scope for such variation or discharge to be achieved by some other non-statutory method, bypassing the statutory safeguards for the public, must be extremely limited. Such a change is not simply a matter for bilateral agreement between the developer and the local planning authority. The public is entitled to be involved. As Dyson J said in the first instance decision in R v Leicester City Council, ex parte Powergen United Kingdom plc  4 PLR 91 at 101 G - H:
"... section 73 is the provision that parliament has enacted to deal with situations where a developer wishes to develop land without compliance with conditions previously attached to a planning permission. What is required in such circumstances is that the developer apply for planning permission. I do not accept that the provisions of section 73 can be side-stepped by persuading a local planning authority, still less an authorised officer, to vary or waive a condition under the guise of the exercise of a general management discretion in the implementation of planning permissions."
The reasoning of Dyson J was endorsed when that case went to the Court of Appeal: see  81 P& CR 47, at paras. 21, 47 and 48. Moreover, it is entirely in harmony with the House of Lords' decision in R v East Sussex County Council, ex parte Reprotech (Pebsham) Limited  UKHL 8,  4 All ER 58, where the issue concerned the process of determining whether development requiring planning permission was involved. At para. 29, Lord Hoffmann said:
"It is, I think, clear from this brief summary that a determination is not simply a matter between the applicant and the planning authority in which they are free to agree on whatever procedure they please. It is also a matter which concerns the general public interest and which requires other planning authorities, the Secretary of State on behalf of the national interest and the public itself to be able to participate."
52. That is very much the nature of town and country planning law. Even more than many areas of public law which concern an individual and a public body, planning law is likely to have to reflect the fact that third parties and the public generally may have interests in any decision. I agree with what was said by Sullivan J in the present case at para 140:
"... It is important at all times to remember the public nature of Town and Country Planning. It is not a matter for private agreement between developers and Local Planning Authorities."
"The court lighting hereby approved shall only be on when the courts are in use for playing and/or coaching tennis during the months of September to April inclusive and they shall not be operated after 21:00 hours or before 08:00 hours on any day without the prior consent in writing of the Local Planning Authority."
88. "Eventually and in the result, Ouseley J concluded in the circumstances of that case that the tailpiece was to be excised from condition number 6.
89. Very much the same it seems to me, accepting the claimant's argument on this point, can be said about the present case. Paraphrasing what Ouseley J said in my own words, it seems to me that tailpieces of the kind in question in both cases offend against the rule of law. This is because the public, and not only the parties to the particular planning permission concerned, are entitled to know in public documents what planning permission relates to a given development, and what therefore is permitted and what is not.
90. The tailpiece in question leaves wholly uncertain for example who is to grant the variation, according to what criteria which may be non-existent or at least unpublished and secret. On the face of it at least there is nothing to stop, it would seem, an application being made to vary the temporal limitations in condition 2 to such an extent that "any" day could become each and every day, or perhaps each and every day over a sustained period of time.
91. For all those reasons, it seems to me, the tailpiece was unlawful. But it is common ground before me that if I came to that conclusion, then it would be possible to delete the tailpiece from condition 2 without having to quash condition 2 in its entirety, still less for this reason having to quash the planning permission as a whole. "
"106 Planning obligations.E+W
(1) Any person interested in land in the area of a local planning authority may, by agreement or otherwise, enter into an obligation (referred to in this section and sections 106A and 106B as "a planning obligation"), enforceable to the extent mentioned in subsection (3)(a) restricting the development or use of the land in any specified way;(b) requiring specified operations or activities to be carried out in, on, under or over the land;(c) requiring the land to be used in any specified way; or(d) requiring a sum or sums to be paid to the authority on a specified date or dates or periodically.
(2) A planning obligation may(a) be unconditional or subject to conditions;(b) impose any restriction or requirement mentioned in subsection (1)(a) to (c) either indefinitely or for such period or periods as may be specified; and(c) if it requires a sum or sums to be paid, require the payment of a specified amount or an amount determined in accordance with the instrument by which the obligation is entered into and, if it requires the payment of periodical sums, require them to be paid indefinitely or for a specified period.
(3) Subject to subsection (4) a planning obligation is enforceable by the authority identified in accordance with subsection (9)(d)
(a) against the person entering into the obligation; and
(b) against any person deriving title from that person.
(5) A restriction or requirement imposed under a planning obligation is enforceable by injunction.
(6) Without prejudice to subsection (5), if there is a breach of a requirement in a planning obligation to carry out any operations in, on, under or over the land to which the obligation relates, the authority by whom the obligation is enforceable may(a) enter the land and carry out the operations; and(b) recover from the person or persons against whom the obligation is enforceable any expenses reasonably incurred by them in doing so.
(9) A planning obligation may not be entered into except by an instrument executed as a deed which(a) states that the obligation is a planning obligation for the purposes of this section;(b) identifies the land in which the person entering into the obligation is interested;(c) identifies the person entering into the obligation and states what his interest in the land is; and(d) identifies the local planning authority by whom the obligation is enforceable
(10) A copy of any such instrument shall be given to the local planning authority so identified .
(11) A planning obligation shall be a local land charge and for the purposes of the Local Land Charges Act 1975 the authority by whom the obligation is enforceable shall be treated as the originating authority as respects such a charge.
"information relating to the financial or business affairs of any particular person (including the authority holding that information). (Sched 12A Part 1 paragraph 3)"
Topic F Issues on the institution of proceedings; validity and delay
(i) Submissions of the parties
(ii) Discussion and conclusions
Submissions of the parties
(a) The relevant statutory provisions are sections 50-67 of the Local Government Act 2000, and the Local Authorities (Model Code of Conduct) Order 2007 No 11;
(b) 4 of the 5 Parish Councillors at Halebank would have had an interest because they live close to the scheme and thus land in which they have a beneficial interest would be affected (Model Code paragraph 8(1)(a)(ix)) , and the proposed development might reasonably be considered to affect the members' well being and financial position to a great extent than the majority of the other council taxpayers in the area (paragraph 8(1)(b));
(c) A personal interest had to be declared, and a member must with draw unless a dispensation had been obtained from the standards committee (paragraphs 9 and 12(1));
(d) In R(Richardson) v N Yorkshire CC  EWCA Civ 1860  2 All ER 31 the Court upheld a decision that a member of the Council should be excluded from the relevant Committee hearing when his house lay approximately 250m from the nearest point of the proposed extraction. He objected to the new development in that case both in his capacity as the elected representative of the inhabitants of Littlethorpe and in his personal capacity. Although a member of the council, he was not and was not a member of the planning committee. The interests in this case are very similar;
(e) Any direct pecuniary or proprietary interest disqualifies a member from participation- see R v Secretary of State for the Environment ex parte Kirkstall Valley Campaign Limited JPL 142;
(f) The decision was thus vitiated.
(a) the claim was not made promptly, which CPR 54.5(1) requires. CPR 54 complies with the principles of legal certainty in an ECHR context- see Lam v UK 41671/98, applied in Hardy v Pembrokeshire CC  EWCA Civ 240  Env LR 659 @paragraphs 13-18. The decision by the Court of the European Union in Uniplex (UK) Ltd v NHS Business Services Authority C-406/08  2 CMLR 1255 does not affect that principle. Even if it applies to challenges to planning permissions on Directive grounds, it does not apply to challenges on domestic law grounds, and would not prevent exclusion of a remedy on the grounds of delay- see R (Berky) v Newport CC  EWCA Civ 378;
(b) It is not enough that the claim was submitted within 3 months: see Finn-Kelcey v Milton Keynes BC  EWCA Civ 1067,  Env LR 299 @paragraph 21.
(c) That is especially important in cases of challenges to planning permissions (Finn-Kelcey paragraph 22)
(d) The delay is unexplained;
(e) The claim was made on 13th December 2011, 3 days before the expiry of the 3 month period from the date of the permission, and more than 3 months after the date of the Committee meeting;
(f) It is appreciated that the PC had changed its solicitor to one who undertakes litigation, but nothing in this case justifies the lengthy delay. Counsel had been instructed by the PC before 17th October 2011.
(g) Although it is accepted that the developer has announced that it will not go ahead with this permission but has said that it will make another application this year, that is not relevant to the delay issue.
(a) Context matters, and the court must be cognisant of the realities of local government: see Pill LJ in R(Lewis) v Redcar and Cleveland BC  1 WLR 83 @ paragraphs 70-1 and R(Ortona) v Secretary of State for Local Government  EWCA Civ 863.
(b) Unlike the Richardson case what is under attack here is the decision to institute proceedings;
(c) The PC was not deciding to permit or refuse permission to a development but was acting in a consultative role;
(d) The whole parish will feel the effects of the development. There is no evidence that the particular members will be worse affected;
(e) The HBC stance implies that , the more serious the effects on a parish, the more likely it is that the resulting effect on the interests of its members will disqualify the Parish Council from taking any decision;
(f) The taking of a decision to institute proceedings does not affect their personal interests;
(g) There is no evidence that any of them were affected by any personal interest in the taking of the decision;
(h) No reasonable member of the public would consider that the councillors' relationship to the decision to issue proceedings would prejudice their judgement;
(i) No challenge has been made by way of judicial review to the decision of the PC to take proceedings. The presumption of validity applies; see De Smith's Judicial Review Sixth Edition paragraph 4-061. It follows that the decision to issue and conduct proceedings remains valid unless successfully challenged. HBC has taken no steps to do so.
(a) If a challenge is made on the grounds that the environmental impact assessment directive was not applied, the three months period cannot be shortened: see Uniplex (cited above) , R(Buglife) v Medway Council and others  EWHC 1746 @paragraphs 61-2 and R(U) v Broads Authority and Environment Agency  EWHC 1824 Admin at paragraphs 44-47
(b) A claimant is not to be criticised for delay where it has been making reasonable enquiries of the authority of the basis for the decision under challenge (R(Macrae) v Hertfordshire CC  EWCA Civ 457), which is what happened here.
Discussion and Conclusions
Topic G Overall conclusions
(a) HBC deprived the PC of the opportunity to participate effectively in consultation. The failure to provide that opportunity amounted to a breach of Article 6 of the EIA Directive;
(b) HBC also acted in breach of a legitimate expectation held out by it to the PC in its Statement of Community Involvement;
(c) HBC has misinterpreted Development Plan policy;
(d) The "tailpiece" conditions it applied were unlawful, although the illegality can be cured by excision of the offending parts;
(e) The claims by PC relating to the absence of a section 106 agreement and the provision of a roadlink are not sustainable;
(f) The claim by HBC that the proceedings were issued without authority has not been substantiated, and it has taken no steps to challenge that decision;
(g) The claim should not fail on the grounds of delay.
(a) While the PC complain of the constraints placed on consultation, there is no topic, apart from the question of the UDP, where any issue has been identified where the PC wanted to say more at the time but was unable to do so;
(b) As to the UDP, the essential difference between what the UDP prescribed and what the SPD addressed in its phasing policy, is whether the erection of railway sidings on Site 256 has to be commenced before permission is granted on Site 256. The permission requires the construction of the rail siding within the site before the development is brought into use, and the use of the railway network to serve the site will be achieved by the development agreement.
(a) The overall impression given of the conduct of the consultation by HBC is of an authority so determined to see this application for very substantial and potentially intrusive development permitted, that it brushed aside any argument that a longer period for consultation was required. It also conducted itself in such a way that it failed to inform anyone outside the authority, apart from the developer and its customer, that the actual time for consultation had been substantially reduced. I regard it as unusual in the extreme that a responsible local planning authority would consider that the bare minimum was enough time to address a proposal of this scale and complexity.
(b) The haste with which HBC insisted that the application be dealt with can be gauged from the unfortunate way in which the PC's requests for more time were dealt with, as identified above;
(c) The preconditions in the UDP policy are designed to address important objectives of not releasing what had been Green Belt land, and is still greenfield land, unless the case was made for it, and in a sequential process. If that is to be set aside, the Council should follow the procedures for dealing with departure applications, and address whether there are reasons to depart from the statutory development plan. In the case of the emphasis placed in the UDP on the development of both Sites 255 and 256 proceeding first , and of the need for the development of Site 253 to be part of the strategic rail park, the only mechanism for achieving the rail linkage actually being used lies within the development agreement, which HBC has decided to keep from public inspection.
(d) The site is owned by the Council, which whether it does so by way of profit, or of recoupment of outlay, will receive a substantial sum from the developer.
Application for permission to appeal
Note 1 Defendants bundle page 130 [Back] Note 2 Ditton Strategic Rail Freight Park [Back]
Note 1 Defendants bundle page 130 [Back]
Note 2 Ditton Strategic Rail Freight Park [Back]