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Companies Act 2006

2006 CHAPTER 46

CONTENTS

Go to Preamble

  1. Part 1

    General introductory provisions

    1. Companies and Companies Acts

      1. 1. Companies

      2. 2. The Companies Acts

    2. Types of company

      1. 3. Limited and unlimited companies

      2. 4. Private and public companies

      3. 5. Companies limited by guarantee and having share capital

      4. 6. Community interest companies

  2. Part 2

    Company formation

    1. General

      1. 7. Method of forming company

      2. 8. Memorandum of association

    2. Requirements for registration

      1. 9. Registration documents

      2. 10. Statement of capital and initial shareholdings

      3. 11. Statement of guarantee

      4. 12. Statement of proposed officers

      5. 13. Statement of compliance

    3. Registration and its effect

      1. 14. Registration

      2. 15. Issue of certificate of incorporation

      3. 16. Effect of registration

  3. Part 3

    A company´s constitution

    1. Chapter 1

      Introductory

      1. 17. A company´s constitution

    2. Chapter 2

      Articles of association

      1. General

        1. 18. Articles of association

        2. 19. Power of Secretary of State to prescribe model articles

        3. 20. Default application of model articles

      2. Alteration of articles

        1. 21. Amendment of articles

        2. 22. Entrenched provisions of the articles

        3. 23. Notice to registrar of existence of restriction on amendment of articles

        4. 24. Statement of compliance where amendment of articles restricted

        5. 25. Effect of alteration of articles on company´s members

        6. 26. Registrar to be sent copy of amended articles

        7. 27. Registrar´s notice to comply in case of failure with respect to amended articles

      3. Supplementary

        1. 28. Existing companies: provisions of memorandum treated as provisions of articles

    3. Chapter 3

      Resolutions and agreements affecting a company´s constitution

      1. 29. Resolutions and agreements affecting a company´s constitution

      2. 30. Copies of resolutions or agreements to be forwarded to registrar

    4. Chapter 4

      Miscellaneous and supplementary provisions

      1. Statement of company´s objects

        1. 31. Statement of company´s objects

      2. Other provisions with respect to a company´s constitution

        1. 32. Constitutional documents to be provided to members

        2. 33. Effect of company´s constitution

        3. 34. Notice to registrar where company´s constitution altered by enactment

        4. 35. Notice to registrar where company´s constitution altered by order

        5. 36. Documents to be incorporated in or accompany copies of articles issued by company

      3. Supplementary provisions

        1. 37. Right to participate in profits otherwise than as member void

        2. 38. Application to single member companies of enactments and rules of law

  4. Part 4

    A company´s capacity and related matters

    1. Capacity of company and power of directors to bind it

      1. 39. A company´s capacity

      2. 40. Power of directors to bind the company

      3. 41. Constitutional limitations: transactions involving directors or their associates

      4. 42. Constitutional limitations: companies that are charities

    2. Formalities of doing business under the law of England and Wales or Northern Ireland

      1. 43. Company contracts

      2. 44. Execution of documents

      3. 45. Common seal

      4. 46. Execution of deeds

      5. 47. Execution of deeds or other documents by attorney

    3. Formalities of doing business under the law of Scotland

      1. 48. Execution of documents by companies

    4. Other matters

      1. 49. Official seal for use abroad

      2. 50. Official seal for share certificates etc

      3. 51. Pre-incorporation contracts, deeds and obligations

      4. 52. Bills of exchange and promissory notes

  5. Part 5

    A company´s name

    1. Chapter 1

      General requirements

      1. Prohibited names

        1. 53. Prohibited names

      2. Sensitive words and expressions

        1. 54. Names suggesting connection with government or public authority

        2. 55. Other sensitive words or expressions

        3. 56. Duty to seek comments of government department or other specified body

      3. Permitted characters etc

        1. 57. Permitted characters etc

    2. Chapter 2

      Indications of company type or legal form

      1. Required indications for limited companies

        1. 58. Public limited companies

        2. 59. Private limited companies

        3. 60. Exemption from requirement as to use of "limited"

        4. 61. Continuation of existing exemption: companies limited by shares

        5. 62. Continuation of existing exemption: companies limited by guarantee

        6. 63. Exempt company: restriction on amendment of articles

        7. 64. Power to direct change of name in case of company ceasing to be entitled to exemption

      2. Inappropriate use of indications of company type or legal form

        1. 65. Inappropriate use of indications of company type or legal form

    3. Chapter 3

      Similarity to other names

      1. Similarity to other name on registrar´s index

        1. 66. Name not to be the same as another in the index

        2. 67. Power to direct change of name in case of similarity to existing name

        3. 68. Direction to change name: supplementary provisions

      2. Similarity to other name in which person has goodwill

        1. 69. Objection to company´s registered name

        2. 70. Company names adjudicators

        3. 71. Procedural rules

        4. 72. Decision of adjudicator to be made available to public

        5. 73. Order requiring name to be changed

        6. 74. Appeal from adjudicator´s decision

    4. Chapter 4

      Other powers of the Secretary of State

      1. 75. Provision of misleading information etc

      2. 76. Misleading indication of activities

    5. Chapter 5

      Change of name

      1. 77. Change of name

      2. 78. Change of name by special resolution

      3. 79. Change of name by means provided for in company´s articles

      4. 80. Change of name: registration and issue of new certificate of incorporation

      5. 81. Change of name: effect

    6. Chapter 6

      Trading disclosures

      1. 82. Requirement to disclose company name etc

      2. 83. Civil consequences of failure to make required disclosure

      3. 84. Criminal consequences of failure to make required disclosures

      4. 85. Minor variations in form of name to be left out of account

  6. Part 6

    A company´s registered office

    1. General

      1. 86. A company´s registered office

      2. 87. Change of address of registered office

    2. Welsh companies

      1. 88. Welsh companies

  7. Part 7

    Re-registration as a means of altering a company´s status

    1. Introductory

      1. 89. Alteration of status by re-registration

    2. Private company becoming public

      1. 90. Re-registration of private company as public

      2. 91. Requirements as to share capital

      3. 92. Requirements as to net assets

      4. 93. Recent allotment of shares for non-cash consideration

      5. 94. Application and accompanying documents

      6. 95. Statement of proposed secretary

      7. 96. Issue of certificate of incorporation on re-registration

    3. Public company becoming private

      1. 97. Re-registration of public company as private limited company

      2. 98. Application to court to cancel resolution

      3. 99. Notice to registrar of court application or order

      4. 100. Application and accompanying documents

      5. 101. Issue of certificate of incorporation on re-registration

    4. Private limited company becoming unlimited

      1. 102. Re-registration of private limited company as unlimited

      2. 103. Application and accompanying documents

      3. 104. Issue of certificate of incorporation on re-registration

    5. Unlimited private company becoming limited

      1. 105. Re-registration of unlimited company as limited

      2. 106. Application and accompanying documents

      3. 107. Issue of certificate of incorporation on re-registration

      4. 108. Statement of capital required where company already has share capital

    6. Public company becoming private and unlimited

      1. 109. Re-registration of public company as private and unlimited

      2. 110. Application and accompanying documents

      3. 111. Issue of certificate of incorporation on re-registration

  8. Part 8

    A company´s members

    1. Chapter 1

      The members of a company

      1. 112. The members of a company

    2. Chapter 2

      Register of members

      1. General

        1. 113. Register of members

        2. 114. Register to be kept available for inspection

        3. 115. Index of members

        4. 116. Rights to inspect and require copies

        5. 117. Register of members: response to request for inspection or copy

        6. 118. Register of members: refusal of inspection or default in providing copy

        7. 119. Register of members: offences in connection with request for or disclosure of information

        8. 120. Information as to state of register and index

        9. 121. Removal of entries relating to former members

      2. Special cases

        1. 122. Share warrants

        2. 123. Single member companies

        3. 124. Company holding its own shares as treasury shares

      3. Supplementary

        1. 125. Power of court to rectify register

        2. 126. Trusts not to be entered on register

        3. 127. Register to be evidence

        4. 128. Time limit for claims arising from entry in register

    3. Chapter 3

      Overseas branch registers

      1. 129. Overseas branch registers

      2. 130. Notice of opening of overseas branch register

      3. 131. Keeping of overseas branch register

      4. 132. Register or duplicate to be kept available for inspection in UK

      5. 133. Transactions in shares registered in overseas branch register

      6. 134. Jurisdiction of local courts

      7. 135. Discontinuance of overseas branch register

    4. Chapter 4

      Prohibition on subsidiary being member of its holding company

      1. General prohibition

        1. 136. Prohibition on subsidiary being a member of its holding company

        2. 137. Shares acquired before prohibition became applicable

      2. Subsidiary acting as personal representative or trustee

        1. 138. Subsidiary acting as personal representative or trustee

        2. 139. Interests to be disregarded: residual interest under pension scheme or employees' share scheme

        3. 140. Interests to be disregarded: employer´s rights of recovery under pension scheme or employees' share scheme

      3. Subsidiary acting as dealer in securities

        1. 141. Subsidiary acting as authorised dealer in securities

        2. 142. Protection of third parties in other cases where subsidiary acting as dealer in securities

      4. Supplementary

        1. 143. Application of provisions to companies not limited by shares

        2. 144. Application of provisions to nominees

  9. Part 9

    Exercise of members' rights

    1. Effect of provisions in company´s articles

      1. 145. Effect of provisions of articles as to enjoyment or exercise of members' rights

    2. Information rights

      1. 146. Traded companies: nomination of persons to enjoy information rights

      2. 147. Information rights: form in which copies to be provided

      3. 148. Termination or suspension of nomination

      4. 149. Information as to possible rights in relation to voting

      5. 150. Information rights: status of rights

      6. 151. Information rights: power to amend

    3. Exercise of rights where shares held on behalf of others

      1. 152. Exercise of rights where shares held on behalf of others: exercise in different ways

      2. 153. Exercise of rights where shares held on behalf of others: members' requests

  10. Part 10

    A company´s directors

    1. Chapter 1

      Appointment and removal of directors

      1. Requirement to have directors

        1. 154. Companies required to have directors

        2. 155. Companies required to have at least one director who is a natural person

        3. 156. Direction requiring company to make appointment

      2. Appointment

        1. 157. Minimum age for appointment as director

        2. 158. Power to provide for exceptions from minimum age requirement

        3. 159. Existing under-age directors

        4. 160. Appointment of directors of public company to be voted on individually

        5. 161. Validity of acts of directors

      3. Register of directors, etc

        1. 162. Register of directors

        2. 163. Particulars of directors to be registered: individuals

        3. 164. Particulars of directors to be registered: corporate directors and firms

        4. 165. Register of directors' residential addresses

        5. 166. Particulars of directors to be registered: power to make regulations

        6. 167. Duty to notify registrar of changes

      4. Removal

        1. 168. Resolution to remove director

        2. 169. Director´s right to protest against removal

    2. Chapter 2

      General duties of directors

      1. Introductory

        1. 170. Scope and nature of general duties

      2. The general duties

        1. 171. Duty to act within powers

        2. 172. Duty to promote the success of the company

        3. 173. Duty to exercise independent judgment

        4. 174. Duty to exercise reasonable care, skill and diligence

        5. 175. Duty to avoid conflicts of interest

        6. 176. Duty not to accept benefits from third parties

        7. 177. Duty to declare interest in proposed transaction or arrangement

      3. Supplementary provisions

        1. 178. Civil consequences of breach of general duties

        2. 179. Cases within more than one of the general duties

        3. 180. Consent, approval or authorisation by members

        4. 181. Modification of provisions in relation to charitable companies

    3. Chapter 3

      Declaration of interest in existing transaction or arrangement

      1. 182. Declaration of interest in existing transaction or arrangement

      2. 183. Offence of failure to declare interest

      3. 184. Declaration made by notice in writing

      4. 185. General notice treated as sufficient declaration

      5. 186. Declaration of interest in case of company with sole director

      6. 187. Declaration of interest in existing transaction by shadow director

    4. Chapter 4

      Transactions with directors requiring approval of members

      1. Service contracts

        1. 188. Directors' long-term service contracts: requirement of members' approval

        2. 189. Directors' long-term service contracts: civil consequences of contravention

      2. Substantial property transactions

        1. 190. Substantial property transactions: requirement of members' approval

        2. 191. Meaning of "substantial"

        3. 192. Exception for transactions with members or other group companies

        4. 193. Exception in case of company in winding up or administration

        5. 194. Exception for transactions on recognised investment exchange

        6. 195. Property transactions: civil consequences of contravention

        7. 196. Property transactions: effect of subsequent affirmation

      3. Loans, quasi-loans and credit transactions

        1. 197. Loans to directors: requirement of members' approval

        2. 198. Quasi-loans to directors: requirement of members' approval

        3. 199. Meaning of "quasi-loan" and related expressions

        4. 200. Loans or quasi-loans to persons connected with directors: requirement of members' approval

        5. 201. Credit transactions: requirement of members' approval

        6. 202. Meaning of "credit transaction"

        7. 203. Related arrangements: requirement of members' approval

        8. 204. Exception for expenditure on company business

        9. 205. Exception for expenditure on defending proceedings etc

        10. 206. Exception for expenditure in connection with regulatory action or investigation

        11. 207. Exceptions for minor and business transactions

        12. 208. Exceptions for intra-group transactions

        13. 209. Exceptions for money-lending companies

        14. 210. Other relevant transactions or arrangements

        15. 211. The value of transactions and arrangements

        16. 212. The person for whom a transaction or arrangement is entered into

        17. 213. Loans etc: civil consequences of contravention

        18. 214. Loans etc: effect of subsequent affirmation

      4. Payments for loss of office

        1. 215. Payments for loss of office

        2. 216. Amounts taken to be payments for loss of office

        3. 217. Payment by company: requirement of members' approval

        4. 218. Payment in connection with transfer of undertaking etc: requirement of members' approval

        5. 219. Payment in connection with share transfer: requirement of members' approval

        6. 220. Exception for payments in discharge of legal obligations etc

        7. 221. Exception for small payments

        8. 222. Payments made without approval: civil consequences

      5. Supplementary

        1. 223. Transactions requiring members' approval: application of provisions to shadow directors

        2. 224. Approval by written resolution: accidental failure to send memorandum

        3. 225. Cases where approval is required under more than one provision

        4. 226. Requirement of consent of Charity Commission: companies that are charities

    5. Chapter 5

      Directors' service contracts

      1. 227. Directors' service contracts

      2. 228. Copy of contract or memorandum of terms to be available for inspection

      3. 229. Right of member to inspect and request copy

      4. 230. Directors' service contracts: application of provisions to shadow directors

    6. Chapter 6

      Contracts with sole members who are directors

      1. 231. Contract with sole member who is also a director

    7. Chapter 7

      Directors' liabilities

      1. Provision protecting directors from liability

        1. 232. Provisions protecting directors from liability

        2. 233. Provision of insurance

        3. 234. Qualifying third party indemnity provision

        4. 235. Qualifying pension scheme indemnity provision

        5. 236. Qualifying indemnity provision to be disclosed in directors' report

        6. 237. Copy of qualifying indemnity provision to be available for inspection

        7. 238. Right of member to inspect and request copy

      2. Ratification of acts giving rise to liability

        1. 239. Ratification of acts of directors

    8. Chapter 8

      Directors' residential addresses: protection from disclosure

      1. 240. Protected information

      2. 241. Protected information: restriction on use or disclosure by company

      3. 242. Protected information: restriction on use or disclosure by registrar

      4. 243. Permitted use or disclosure by the registrar

      5. 244. Disclosure under court order

      6. 245. Circumstances in which registrar may put address on the public record

      7. 246. Putting the address on the public record

    9. Chapter 9

      Supplementary provisions

      1. Provision for employees on cessation or transfer of business

        1. 247. Power to make provision for employees on cessation or transfer of business

      2. Records of meetings of directors

        1. 248. Minutes of directors' meetings

        2. 249. Minutes as evidence

      3. Meaning of "director" and "shadow director"

        1. 250. "Director"

        2. 251. "Shadow director"

      4. Other definitions

        1. 252. Persons connected with a director

        2. 253. Members of a director´s family

        3. 254. Director "connected with" a body corporate

        4. 255. Director "controlling" a body corporate

        5. 256. Associated bodies corporate

        6. 257. References to company´s constitution

      5. General

        1. 258. Power to increase financial limits

        2. 259. Transactions under foreign law

  11. Part 11

    Derivative claims and proceedings by members

    1. Chapter 1

      Derivative claims in England and Wales or Northern Ireland

      1. 260. Derivative claims

      2. 261. Application for permission to continue derivative claim

      3. 262. Application for permission to continue claim as a derivative claim

      4. 263. Whether permission to be given

      5. 264. Application for permission to continue derivative claim brought by another member

    2. Chapter 2

      Derivative proceedings in Scotland

      1. 265. Derivative proceedings

      2. 266. Requirement for leave and notice

      3. 267. Application to continue proceedings as derivative proceedings

      4. 268. Granting of leave

      5. 269. Application by member to be substituted for member pursuing derivative proceedings

  12. Part 12

    Company secretaries

    1. Private companies

      1. 270. Private company not required to have secretary

    2. Public companies

      1. 271. Public company required to have secretary

      2. 272. Direction requiring public company to appoint secretary

      3. 273. Qualifications of secretaries of public companies

    3. Provisions applying to private companies with a secretary and to public companies

      1. 274. Discharge of functions where office vacant or secretary unable to act

      2. 275. Duty to keep register of secretaries

      3. 276. Duty to notify registrar of changes

      4. 277. Particulars of secretaries to be registered: individuals

      5. 278. Particulars of secretaries to be registered: corporate secretaries and firms

      6. 279. Particulars of secretaries to be registered: power to make regulations

      7. 280. Acts done by person in dual capacity

  13. Part 13

    Resolutions and meetings

    1. Chapter 1

      General provisions about resolutions

      1. 281. Resolutions

      2. 282. Ordinary resolutions

      3. 283. Special resolutions

      4. 284. Votes: general rules

      5. 285. Votes: specific requirements

      6. 286. Votes of joint holders of shares

      7. 287. Saving for provisions of articles as to determination of entitlement to vote

    2. Chapter 2

      Written resolutions

      1. General provisions about written resolutions

        1. 288. Written resolutions of private companies

        2. 289. Eligible members

      2. Circulation of written resolutions

        1. 290. Circulation date

        2. 291. Circulation of written resolutions proposed by directors

        3. 292. Members' power to require circulation of written resolution

        4. 293. Circulation of written resolution proposed by members

        5. 294. Expenses of circulation

        6. 295. Application not to circulate members' statement

      3. Agreeing to written resolutions

        1. 296. Procedure for signifying agreement to written resolution

        2. 297. Period for agreeing to written resolution

      4. Supplementary

        1. 298. Sending documents relating to written resolutions by electronic means

        2. 299. Publication of written resolution on website

        3. 300. Relationship between this Chapter and provisions of company´s articles

    3. Chapter 3

      Resolutions at meetings

      1. General provisions about resolutions at meetings

        1. 301. Resolutions at general meetings

      2. Calling meetings

        1. 302. Directors' power to call general meetings

        2. 303. Members' power to require directors to call general meeting

        3. 304. Directors' duty to call meetings required by members

        4. 305. Power of members to call meeting at company´s expense

        5. 306. Power of court to order meeting

      3. Notice of meetings

        1. 307. Notice required of general meeting

        2. 308. Manner in which notice to be given

        3. 309. Publication of notice of meeting on website

        4. 310. Persons entitled to receive notice of meetings

        5. 311. Contents of notices of meetings

        6. 312. Resolution requiring special notice

        7. 313. Accidental failure to give notice of resolution or meeting

      4. Members' statements

        1. 314. Members' power to require circulation of statements

        2. 315. Company´s duty to circulate members' statement

        3. 316. Expenses of circulating members' statement

        4. 317. Application not to circulate members' statement

      5. Procedure at meetings

        1. 318. Quorum at meetings

        2. 319. Chairman of meeting

        3. 320. Declaration by chairman on a show of hands

        4. 321. Right to demand a poll

        5. 322. Voting on a poll

        6. 323. Representation of corporations at meetings

      6. Proxies

        1. 324. Rights to appoint proxies

        2. 325. Notice of meeting to contain statement of rights

        3. 326. Company-sponsored invitations to appoint proxies

        4. 327. Notice required of appointment of proxy etc

        5. 328. Chairing meetings

        6. 329. Right of proxy to demand a poll

        7. 330. Notice required of termination of proxy´s authority

        8. 331. Saving for more extensive rights conferred by articles

      7. Adjourned meetings

        1. 332. Resolution passed at adjourned meeting

      8. Electronic communications

        1. 333. Sending documents relating to meetings etc in electronic form

      9. Application to class meetings

        1. 334. Application to class meetings

        2. 335. Application to class meetings: companies without a share capital

    4. Chapter 4

      Public companies: additional requirements for AGMs

      1. 336. Public companies: annual general meeting

      2. 337. Public companies: notice of AGM

      3. 338. Public companies: members' power to require circulation of resolutions for AGMs

      4. 339. Public companies: company´s duty to circulate members' resolutions for AGMs

      5. 340. Public companies: expenses of circulating members' resolutions for AGM

    5. Chapter 5

      Additional requirements for quoted companies

      1. Website publication of poll results

        1. 341. Results of poll to be made available on website

      2. Independent report on poll

        1. 342. Members' power to require independent report on poll

        2. 343. Appointment of independent assessor

        3. 344. Independence requirement

        4. 345. Meaning of "associate"

        5. 346. Effect of appointment of a partnership

        6. 347. The independent assessor´s report

        7. 348. Rights of independent assessor: right to attend meeting etc

        8. 349. Rights of independent assessor: right to information

        9. 350. Offences relating to provision of information

        10. 351. Information to be made available on website

      3. Supplementary

        1. 352. Application of provisions to class meetings

        2. 353. Requirements as to website availability

        3. 354. Power to limit or extend the types of company to which provisions of this Chapter apply

    6. Chapter 6

      Records of resolutions and meetings

      1. 355. Records of resolutions and meetings etc

      2. 356. Records as evidence of resolutions etc

      3. 357. Records of decisions by sole member

      4. 358. Inspection of records of resolutions and meetings

      5. 359. Records of resolutions and meetings of class of members

    7. Chapter 7

      Supplementary provisions

      1. 360. Computation of periods of notice etc: clear day rule

      2. 361. Meaning of "quoted company"

  14. Part 14

    Control of political donations and expenditure

    1. Introductory

      1. 362. Introductory

    2. Donations and expenditure to which this Part applies

      1. 363. Political parties, organisations etc to which this Part applies

      2. 364. Meaning of "political donation"

      3. 365. Meaning of "political expenditure"

    3. Authorisation required for donations or expenditure

      1. 366. Authorisation required for donations or expenditure

      2. 367. Form of authorising resolution

      3. 368. Period for which resolution has effect

    4. Remedies in case of unauthorised donations or expenditure

      1. 369. Liability of directors in case of unauthorised donation or expenditure

      2. 370. Enforcement of directors' liabilities by shareholder action

      3. 371. Enforcement of directors' liabilities by shareholder action: supplementary

      4. 372. Costs of shareholder action

      5. 373. Information for purposes of shareholder action

    5. Exemptions

      1. 374. Trade unions

      2. 375. Subscription for membership of trade association

      3. 376. All-party parliamentary groups

      4. 377. Political expenditure exempted by order

      5. 378. Donations not amounting to more than £5,000 in any twelve month period

    6. Supplementary provisions

      1. 379. Minor definitions

  15. Part 15

    Accounts and reports

    1. Chapter 1

      Introduction

      1. General

        1. 380. Scheme of this Part

      2. Companies subject to the small companies regime

        1. 381. Companies subject to the small companies regime

        2. 382. Companies qualifying as small: general

        3. 383. Companies qualifying as small: parent companies

        4. 384. Companies excluded from the small companies regime

      3. Quoted and unquoted companies

        1. 385. Quoted and unquoted companies

    2. Chapter 2

      Accounting records

      1. 386. Duty to keep accounting records

      2. 387. Duty to keep accounting records: offence

      3. 388. Where and for how long records to be kept

      4. 389. Where and for how long records to be kept: offences

    3. Chapter 3

      A company´s financial year

      1. 390. A company´s financial year

      2. 391. Accounting reference periods and accounting reference date

      3. 392. Alteration of accounting reference date

    4. Chapter 4

      Annual accounts

      1. General

        1. 393. Accounts to give true and fair view

      2. Individual accounts

        1. 394. Duty to prepare individual accounts

        2. 395. Individual accounts: applicable accounting framework

        3. 396. Companies Act individual accounts

        4. 397. IAS individual accounts

      3. Group accounts: small companies

        1. 398. Option to prepare group accounts

      4. Group accounts: other companies

        1. 399. Duty to prepare group accounts

        2. 400. Exemption for company included in EEA group accounts of larger group

        3. 401. Exemption for company included in non-EEA group accounts of larger group

        4. 402. Exemption if no subsidiary undertakings need be included in the consolidation

      5. Group accounts: general

        1. 403. Group accounts: applicable accounting framework

        2. 404. Companies Act group accounts

        3. 405. Companies Act group accounts: subsidiary undertakings included in the consolidation

        4. 406. IAS group accounts

        5. 407. Consistency of financial reporting within group

        6. 408. Individual profit and loss account where group accounts prepared

      6. Information to be given in notes to the accounts

        1. 409. Information about related undertakings

        2. 410. Information about related undertakings: alternative compliance

        3. 411. Information about employee numbers and costs

        4. 412. Information about directors' benefits: remuneration

        5. 413. Information about directors' benefits: advances, credit and guarantees

      7. Approval and signing of accounts

        1. 414. Approval and signing of accounts

    5. Chapter 5

      Directors' report

      1. Directors' report

        1. 415. Duty to prepare directors' report

        2. 416. Contents of directors' report: general

        3. 417. Contents of directors' report: business review

        4. 418. Contents of directors' report: statement as to disclosure to auditors

        5. 419. Approval and signing of directors' report

    6. Chapter 6

      Quoted companies: directors' remuneration report

      1. 420. Duty to prepare directors' remuneration report

      2. 421. Contents of directors' remuneration report

      3. 422. Approval and signing of directors' remuneration report

    7. Chapter 7

      Publication of accounts and reports

      1. Duty to circulate copies of accounts and reports

        1. 423. Duty to circulate copies of annual accounts and reports

        2. 424. Time allowed for sending out copies of accounts and reports

        3. 425. Default in sending out copies of accounts and reports: offences

      2. Option to provide summary financial statement

        1. 426. Option to provide summary financial statement

        2. 427. Form and contents of summary financial statement: unquoted companies

        3. 428. Form and contents of summary financial statement: quoted companies

        4. 429. Summary financial statements: offences

      3. Quoted companies: requirements as to website publication

        1. 430. Quoted companies: annual accounts and reports to be made available on website

      4. Right of member or debenture holder to demand copies of accounts and reports

        1. 431. Right of member or debenture holder to copies of accounts and reports: unquoted companies

        2. 432. Right of member or debenture holder to copies of accounts and reports: quoted companies

      5. Requirements in connection with publication of accounts and reports

        1. 433. Name of signatory to be stated in published copies of accounts and reports

        2. 434. Requirements in connection with publication of statutory accounts

        3. 435. Requirements in connection with publication of non-statutory accounts

        4. 436. Meaning of "publication" in relation to accounts and reports

    8. Chapter 8

      Public companies: laying of accounts and reports before general meeting

      1. 437. Public companies: laying of accounts and reports before general meeting

      2. 438. Public companies: offence of failure to lay accounts and reports

    9. Chapter 9

      Quoted companies: members' approval of directors' remuneration report

      1. 439. Quoted companies: members' approval of directors' remuneration report

      2. 440. Quoted companies: offences in connection with procedure for approval

    10. Chapter 10

      Filing of accounts and reports

      1. Duty to file accounts and reports

        1. 441. Duty to file accounts and reports with the registrar

        2. 442. Period allowed for filing accounts

        3. 443. Calculation of period allowed

      2. Filing obligations of different descriptions of company

        1. 444. Filing obligations of companies subject to small companies regime

        2. 445. Filing obligations of medium-sized companies

        3. 446. Filing obligations of unquoted companies

        4. 447. Filing obligations of quoted companies

        5. 448. Unlimited companies exempt from obligation to file accounts

      3. Requirements where abbreviated accounts delivered

        1. 449. Special auditor´s report where abbreviated accounts delivered

        2. 450. Approval and signing of abbreviated accounts

      4. Failure to file accounts and reports

        1. 451. Default in filing accounts and reports: offences

        2. 452. Default in filing accounts and reports: court order

        3. 453. Civil penalty for failure to file accounts and reports

    11. Chapter 11

      Revision of defective accounts and reports

      1. Voluntary revision

        1. 454. Voluntary revision of accounts etc

      2. Secretary of State´s notice

        1. 455. Secretary of State´s notice in respect of accounts or reports

      3. Application to court

        1. 456. Application to court in respect of defective accounts or reports

        2. 457. Other persons authorised to apply to the court

        3. 458. Disclosure of information by tax authorities

      4. Power of authorised person to require documents etc

        1. 459. Power of authorised person to require documents, information and explanations

        2. 460. Restrictions on disclosure of information obtained under compulsory powers

        3. 461. Permitted disclosure of information obtained under compulsory powers

        4. 462. Power to amend categories of permitted disclosure

    12. Chapter 12

      Supplementary provisions

      1. Liability for false or misleading statements in reports

        1. 463. Liability for false or misleading statements in reports

      2. Accounting and reporting standards

        1. 464. Accounting standards

      3. Companies qualifying as medium-sized

        1. 465. Companies qualifying as medium-sized: general

        2. 466. Companies qualifying as medium-sized: parent companies

        3. 467. Companies excluded from being treated as medium-sized

      4. General power to make further provision about accounts and reports

        1. 468. General power to make further provision about accounts and reports

      5. Other supplementary provisions

        1. 469. Preparation and filing of accounts in euros

        2. 470. Power to apply provisions to banking partnerships

        3. 471. Meaning of "annual accounts" and related expressions

        4. 472. Notes to the accounts

        5. 473. Parliamentary procedure for certain regulations under this Part

        6. 474. Minor definitions

  16. Part 16

    Audit

    1. Chapter 1

      Requirement for audited accounts

      1. Requirement for audited accounts

        1. 475. Requirement for audited accounts

        2. 476. Right of members to require audit

      2. Exemption from audit: small companies

        1. 477. Small companies: conditions for exemption from audit

        2. 478. Companies excluded from small companies exemption

        3. 479. Availability of small companies exemption in case of group company

      3. Exemption from audit: dormant companies

        1. 480. Dormant companies: conditions for exemption from audit

        2. 481. Companies excluded from dormant companies exemption

      4. Companies subject to public sector audit

        1. 482. Non-profit-making companies subject to public sector audit

        2. 483. Scottish public sector companies: audit by Auditor General for Scotland

      5. General power of amendment by regulations

        1. 484. General power of amendment by regulations

    2. Chapter 2

      Appointment of auditors

      1. Private companies

        1. 485. Appointment of auditors of private company: general

        2. 486. Appointment of auditors of private company: default power of Secretary of State

        3. 487. Term of office of auditors of private company

        4. 488. Prevention by members of deemed re-appointment of auditor

      2. Public companies

        1. 489. Appointment of auditors of public company: general

        2. 490. Appointment of auditors of public company: default power of Secretary of State

        3. 491. Term of office of auditors of public company

      3. General provisions

        1. 492. Fixing of auditor´s remuneration

        2. 493. Disclosure of terms of audit appointment

        3. 494. Disclosure of services provided by auditor or associates and related remuneration

    3. Chapter 3

      Functions of auditor

      1. Auditor´s report

        1. 495. Auditor´s report on company´s annual accounts

        2. 496. Auditor´s report on directors' report

        3. 497. Auditor´s report on auditable part of directors' remuneration report

      2. Duties and rights of auditors

        1. 498. Duties of auditor

        2. 499. Auditor´s general right to information

        3. 500. Auditor´s right to information from overseas subsidiaries

        4. 501. Auditor´s rights to information: offences

        5. 502. Auditor´s rights in relation to resolutions and meetings

      3. Signature of auditor´s report

        1. 503. Signature of auditor´s report

        2. 504. Senior statutory auditor

        3. 505. Names to be stated in published copies of auditor´s report

        4. 506. Circumstances in which names may be omitted

      4. Offences in connection with auditor´s report

        1. 507. Offences in connection with auditor´s report

        2. 508. Guidance for regulatory and prosecuting authorities: England, Wales and Northern Ireland

        3. 509. Guidance for regulatory authorities: Scotland

    4. Chapter 4

      Removal, resignation, etc of auditors

      1. Removal of auditor

        1. 510. Resolution removing auditor from office

        2. 511. Special notice required for resolution removing auditor from office

        3. 512. Notice to registrar of resolution removing auditor from office

        4. 513. Rights of auditor who has been removed from office

      2. Failure to re-appoint auditor

        1. 514. Failure to re-appoint auditor: special procedure required for written resolution

        2. 515. Failure to re-appoint auditor: special notice required for resolution at general meeting

      3. Resignation of auditor

        1. 516. Resignation of auditor

        2. 517. Notice to registrar of resignation of auditor

        3. 518. Rights of resigning auditor

      4. Statement by auditor on ceasing to hold office

        1. 519. Statement by auditor to be deposited with company

        2. 520. Company´s duties in relation to statement

        3. 521. Copy of statement to be sent to registrar

        4. 522. Duty of auditor to notify appropriate audit authority

        5. 523. Duty of company to notify appropriate audit authority

        6. 524. Information to be given to accounting authorities

        7. 525. Meaning of "appropriate audit authority" and "major audit"

      5. Supplementary

        1. 526. Effect of casual vacancies

    5. Chapter 5

      Quoted companies: right of members to raise audit concerns at accounts meeting

      1. 527. Members' power to require website publication of audit concerns

      2. 528. Requirements as to website availability

      3. 529. Website publication: company´s supplementary duties

      4. 530. Website publication: offences

      5. 531. Meaning of "quoted company"

    6. Chapter 6

      Auditors' liability

      1. Voidness of provisions protecting auditors from liability

        1. 532. Voidness of provisions protecting auditors from liability

      2. Indemnity for costs of defending proceedings

        1. 533. Indemnity for costs of successfully defending proceedings

      3. Liability limitation agreements

        1. 534. Liability limitation agreements

        2. 535. Terms of liability limitation agreement

        3. 536. Authorisation of agreement by members of the company

        4. 537. Effect of liability limitation agreement

        5. 538. Disclosure of agreement by company

    7. Chapter 7

      Supplementary provisions

      1. 539. Minor definitions

  17. Part 17

    A company´s share capital

    1. Chapter 1

      Shares and share capital of a company

      1. Shares

        1. 540. Shares

        2. 541. Nature of shares

        3. 542. Nominal value of shares

        4. 543. Numbering of shares

        5. 544. Transferability of shares

        6. 545. Companies having a share capital

        7. 546. Issued and allotted share capital

      2. Share capital

        1. 547. Called-up share capital

        2. 548. Equity share capital

    2. Chapter 2

      Allotment of shares: general provisions

      1. Power of directors to allot shares

        1. 549. Exercise by directors of power to allot shares etc

        2. 550. Power of directors to allot shares etc: private company with only one class of shares

        3. 551. Power of directors to allot shares etc: authorisation by company

      2. Prohibition of commissions, discounts and allowances

        1. 552. General prohibition of commissions, discounts and allowances

        2. 553. Permitted commission

      3. Registration of allotment

        1. 554. Registration of allotment

      4. Return of allotment

        1. 555. Return of allotment by limited company

        2. 556. Return of allotment by unlimited company allotting new class of shares

        3. 557. Offence of failure to make return

      5. Supplementary provisions

        1. 558. When shares are allotted

        2. 559. Provisions about allotment not applicable to shares taken on formation

    3. Chapter 3

      Allotment of equity securities: existing shareholders' right of pre-emption

      1. Introductory

        1. 560. Meaning of "equity securities" and related expressions

      2. Existing shareholders' right of pre-emption

        1. 561. Existing shareholders' right of pre-emption

        2. 562. Communication of pre-emption offers to shareholders

        3. 563. Liability of company and officers in case of contravention

      3. Exceptions to right of pre-emption

        1. 564. Exception to pre-emption right: bonus shares

        2. 565. Exception to pre-emption right: issue for non-cash consideration

        3. 566. Exception to pre-emption right: securities held under employees' share scheme

      4. Exclusion of right of pre-emption

        1. 567. Exclusion of requirements by private companies

        2. 568. Exclusion of pre-emption right: articles conferring corresponding right

      5. Disapplication of pre-emption rights

        1. 569. Disapplication of pre-emption rights: private company with only one class of shares

        2. 570. Disapplication of pre-emption rights: directors acting under general authorisation

        3. 571. Disapplication of pre-emption rights by special resolution

        4. 572. Liability for false statement in directors' statement

        5. 573. Disapplication of pre-emption rights: sale of treasury shares

      6. Supplementary

        1. 574. References to holder of shares in relation to offer

        2. 575. Saving for other restrictions on offer or allotment

        3. 576. Saving for certain older pre-emption requirements

        4. 577. Provisions about pre-emption not applicable to shares taken on formation

    4. Chapter 4

      Public companies: allotment where issue not fully subscribed

      1. 578. Public companies: allotment where issue not fully subscribed

      2. 579. Public companies: effect of irregular allotment where issue not fully subscribed

    5. Chapter 5

      Payment for shares

      1. General rules

        1. 580. Shares not to be allotted at a discount

        2. 581. Provision for different amounts to be paid on shares

        3. 582. General rule as to means of payment

        4. 583. Meaning of payment in cash

      2. Additional rules for public companies

        1. 584. Public companies: shares taken by subscribers of memorandum

        2. 585. Public companies: must not accept undertaking to do work or perform services

        3. 586. Public companies: shares must be at least one-quarter paid up

        4. 587. Public companies: payment by long-term undertaking

      3. Supplementary provisions

        1. 588. Liability of subsequent holders of shares

        2. 589. Power of court to grant relief

        3. 590. Penalty for contravention of this Chapter

        4. 591. Enforceability of undertakings to do work etc

        5. 592. The appropriate rate of interest

    6. Chapter 6

      Public companies: independent valuation of non-cash consideration

      1. Non-cash consideration for shares

        1. 593. Public company: valuation of non-cash consideration for shares

        2. 594. Exception to valuation requirement: arrangement with another company

        3. 595. Exception to valuation requirement: merger

        4. 596. Non-cash consideration for shares: requirements as to valuation and report

        5. 597. Copy of report to be delivered to registrar

      2. Transfer of non-cash asset in initial period

        1. 598. Public company: agreement for transfer of non-cash asset in initial period

        2. 599. Agreement for transfer of non-cash asset: requirement of independent valuation

        3. 600. Agreement for transfer of non-cash asset: requirements as to valuation and report

        4. 601. Agreement for transfer of non-cash asset: requirement of approval by members

        5. 602. Copy of resolution to be delivered to registrar

        6. 603. Adaptation of provisions in relation to company re-registering as public

        7. 604. Agreement for transfer of non-cash asset: effect of contravention

      3. Supplementary provisions

        1. 605. Liability of subsequent holders of shares

        2. 606. Power of court to grant relief

        3. 607. Penalty for contravention of this Chapter

        4. 608. Enforceability of undertakings to do work etc

        5. 609. The appropriate rate of interest

    7. Chapter 7

      Share premiums

      1. The share premium account

        1. 610. Application of share premiums

      2. Relief from requirements as to share premiums

        1. 611. Group reconstruction relief

        2. 612. Merger relief

        3. 613. Merger relief: meaning of 90% equity holding

        4. 614. Power to make further provision by regulations

        5. 615. Relief may be reflected in company´s balance sheet

      3. Supplementary provisions

        1. 616. Interpretation of this Chapter

    8. Chapter 8

      Alteration of share capital

      1. How share capital may be altered

        1. 617. Alteration of share capital of limited company

      2. Subdivision or consolidation of shares

        1. 618. Sub-division or consolidation of shares

        2. 619. Notice to registrar of sub-division or consolidation

      3. Reconversion of stock into shares

        1. 620. Reconversion of stock into shares

        2. 621. Notice to registrar of reconversion of stock into shares

      4. Redenomination of share capital

        1. 622. Redenomination of share capital

        2. 623. Calculation of new nominal values

        3. 624. Effect of redenomination

        4. 625. Notice to registrar of redenomination

        5. 626. Reduction of capital in connection with redenomination

        6. 627. Notice to registrar of reduction of capital in connection with redenomination

        7. 628. Redenomination reserve

    9. Chapter 9

      Classes of share and class rights

      1. Introductory

        1. 629. Classes of shares

      2. Variation of class rights

        1. 630. Variation of class rights: companies having a share capital

        2. 631. Variation of class rights: companies without a share capital

        3. 632. Variation of class rights: saving for court´s powers under other provisions

        4. 633. Right to object to variation: companies having a share capital

        5. 634. Right to object to variation: companies without a share capital

        6. 635. Copy of court order to be forwarded to the registrar

      3. Matters to be notified to the registrar

        1. 636. Notice of name or other designation of class of shares

        2. 637. Notice of particulars of variation of rights attached to shares

        3. 638. Notice of new class of members

        4. 639. Notice of name or other designation of class of members

        5. 640. Notice of particulars of variation of class rights

    10. Chapter 10

      Reduction of share capital

      1. Introductory

        1. 641. Circumstances in which a company may reduce its share capital

      2. Private companies: reduction of capital supported by solvency statement

        1. 642. Reduction of capital supported by solvency statement

        2. 643. Solvency statement

        3. 644. Registration of resolution and supporting documents

      3. Reduction of capital confirmed by the court

        1. 645. Application to court for order of confirmation

        2. 646. Creditors entitled to object to reduction

        3. 647. Offences in connection with list of creditors

        4. 648. Court order confirming reduction

        5. 649. Registration of order and statement of capital

      4. Public company reducing capital below authorised minimum

        1. 650. Public company reducing capital below authorised minimum

        2. 651. Expedited procedure for re-registration as a private company

      5. Effect of reduction of capital

        1. 652. Liability of members following reduction of capital

        2. 653. Liability to creditor in case of omission from list of creditors

    11. Chapter 11

      Miscellaneous and supplementary provisions

      1. 654. Treatment of reserve arising from reduction of capital

      2. 655. Shares no bar to damages against company

      3. 656. Public companies: duty of directors to call meeting on serious loss of capital

      4. 657. General power to make further provision by regulations

  18. Part 18

    Acquisition by limited company of its own shares

    1. Chapter 1

      General provisions

      1. Introductory

        1. 658. General rule against limited company acquiring its own shares

        2. 659. Exceptions to general rule

      2. Shares held by company´s nominee

        1. 660. Treatment of shares held by nominee

        2. 661. Liability of others where nominee fails to make payment in respect of shares

      3. Shares held by or for public company

        1. 662. Duty to cancel shares in public company held by or for the company

        2. 663. Notice of cancellation of shares

        3. 664. Re-registration as private company in consequence of cancellation

        4. 665. Issue of certificate of incorporation on re-registration

        5. 666. Effect of failure to re-register

        6. 667. Offence in case of failure to cancel shares or re-register

        7. 668. Application of provisions to company re-registering as public company

        8. 669. Transfer to reserve on acquisition of shares by public company or nominee

      4. Charges of public company on own shares

        1. 670. Public companies: general rule against lien or charge on own shares

      5. Supplementary provisions

        1. 671. Interests to be disregarded in determining whether company has beneficial interest

        2. 672. Residual interest under pension scheme or employees' share scheme

        3. 673. Employer´s charges and other rights of recovery

        4. 674. Rights as personal representative or trustee

        5. 675. Meaning of "pension scheme"

        6. 676. Application of provisions to directors

    2. Chapter 2

      Financial assistance for purchase of own shares

      1. Introductory

        1. 677. Meaning of "financial assistance"

      2. Circumstances in which financial assistance prohibited

        1. 678. Assistance for acquisition of shares in public company

        2. 679. Assistance by public company for acquisition of shares in its private holding company

        3. 680. Prohibited financial assistance an offence

      3. Exceptions from prohibition

        1. 681. Unconditional exceptions

        2. 682. Conditional exceptions

      4. Supplementary

        1. 683. Definitions for this Chapter

    3. Chapter 3

      Redeemable shares

      1. 684. Power of limited company to issue redeemable shares

      2. 685. Terms and manner of redemption

      3. 686. Payment for redeemable shares

      4. 687. Financing of redemption

      5. 688. Redeemed shares treated as cancelled

      6. 689. Notice to registrar of redemption

    4. Chapter 4

      Purchase of own shares

      1. General provisions

        1. 690. Power of limited company to purchase own shares

        2. 691. Payment for purchase of own shares

        3. 692. Financing of purchase of own shares

      2. Authority for purchase of own shares

        1. 693. Authority for purchase of own shares

      3. Authority for off-market purchase

        1. 694. Authority for off-market purchase

        2. 695. Resolution authorising off-market purchase: exercise of voting rights

        3. 696. Resolution authorising off-market purchase: disclosure of details of contract

        4. 697. Variation of contract for off-market purchase

        5. 698. Resolution authorising variation: exercise of voting rights

        6. 699. Resolution authorising variation: disclosure of details of variation

        7. 700. Release of company´s rights under contract for off-market purchase

      4. Authority for market purchase

        1. 701. Authority for market purchase

      5. Supplementary provisions

        1. 702. Copy of contract or memorandum to be available for inspection

        2. 703. Enforcement of right to inspect copy or memorandum

        3. 704. No assignment of company´s right to purchase own shares

        4. 705. Payments apart from purchase price to be made out of distributable profits

        5. 706. Treatment of shares purchased

        6. 707. Return to registrar of purchase of own shares

        7. 708. Notice to registrar of cancellation of shares

    5. Chapter 5

      Redemption or purchase by private company out of capital

      1. Introductory

        1. 709. Power of private limited company to redeem or purchase own shares out of capital

      2. The permissible capital payment

        1. 710. The permissible capital payment

        2. 711. Available profits

        3. 712. Determination of available profits

      3. Requirements for payment out of capital

        1. 713. Requirements for payment out of capital

        2. 714. Directors' statement and auditor´s report

        3. 715. Directors' statement: offence if no reasonable grounds for opinion

        4. 716. Payment to be approved by special resolution

        5. 717. Resolution authorising payment: exercise of voting rights

        6. 718. Resolution authorising payment: disclosure of directors' statement and auditor´s report

        7. 719. Public notice of proposed payment

        8. 720. Directors' statement and auditor´s report to be available for inspection

      4. Objection to payment by members or creditors

        1. 721. Application to court to cancel resolution

        2. 722. Notice to registrar of court application or order

      5. Supplementary provisions

        1. 723. When payment out of capital to be made

    6. Chapter 6

      Treasury shares

      1. 724. Treasury shares

      2. 725. Treasury shares: maximum holdings

      3. 726. Treasury shares: exercise of rights

      4. 727. Treasury shares: disposal

      5. 728. Treasury shares: notice of disposal

      6. 729. Treasury shares: cancellation

      7. 730. Treasury shares: notice of cancellation

      8. 731. Treasury shares: treatment of proceeds of sale

      9. 732. Treasury shares: offences

    7. Chapter 7

      Supplementary provisions

      1. 733. The capital redemption reserve

      2. 734. Accounting consequences of payment out of capital

      3. 735. Effect of company´s failure to redeem or purchase

      4. 736. Meaning of "distributable profits"

      5. 737. General power to make further provision by regulations

  19. Part 19

    Debentures

    1. General provisions

      1. 738. Meaning of "debenture"

      2. 739. Perpetual debentures

      3. 740. Enforcement of contract to subscribe for debentures

      4. 741. Registration of allotment of debentures

      5. 742. Debentures to bearer (Scotland)

    2. Register of debenture holders

      1. 743. Register of debenture holders

      2. 744. Register of debenture holders: right to inspect and require copy

      3. 745. Register of debenture holders: response to request for inspection or copy

      4. 746. Register of debenture holders: refusal of inspection or default in providing copy

      5. 747. Register of debenture holders: offences in connection with request for or disclosure of information

      6. 748. Time limit for claims arising from entry in register

    3. Supplementary provisions

      1. 749. Right of debenture holder to copy of deed

      2. 750. Liability of trustees of debentures

      3. 751. Liability of trustees of debentures: saving for certain older provisions

      4. 752. Power to re-issue redeemed debentures

      5. 753. Deposit of debentures to secure advances

      6. 754. Priorities where debentures secured by floating charge

  20. Part 20

    Private and public companies

    1. Chapter 1

      Prohibition of public offers by private companies

      1. 755. Prohibition of public offers by private company

      2. 756. Meaning of "offer to the public"

      3. 757. Enforcement of prohibition: order restraining proposed contravention

      4. 758. Enforcement of prohibition: orders available to the court after contravention

      5. 759. Enforcement of prohibition: remedial order

      6. 760. Validity of allotment etc not affected

    2. Chapter 2

      Minimum share capital requirement for public companies

      1. 761. Public company: requirement as to minimum share capital

      2. 762. Procedure for obtaining certificate

      3. 763. The authorised minimum

      4. 764. Power to alter authorised minimum

      5. 765. Authorised minimum: application of initial requirement

      6. 766. Authorised minimum: application where shares denominated in different currencies etc

      7. 767. Consequences of doing business etc without a trading certificate

  21. Part 21

    Certification and transfer of securities

    1. Chapter 1

      Certification and transfer of securities: general

      1. Share certificates

        1. 768. Share certificate to be evidence of title

      2. Issue of certificates etc on allotment

        1. 769. Duty of company as to issue of certificates etc on allotment

      3. Transfer of securities

        1. 770. Registration of transfer

        2. 771. Procedure on transfer being lodged

        3. 772. Transfer of shares on application of transferor

        4. 773. Execution of share transfer by personal representative

        5. 774. Evidence of grant of probate etc

        6. 775. Certification of instrument of transfer

      4. Issue of certificates etc on transfer

        1. 776. Duty of company as to issue of certificates etc on transfer

        2. 777. Issue of certificates etc: cases within the Stock Transfer Act 1982

      5. Issue of certificates etc on allotment or transfer to financial institution

        1. 778. Issue of certificates etc: allotment or transfer to financial institution

      6. Share warrants

        1. 779. Issue and effect of share warrant to bearer

        2. 780. Duty of company as to issue of certificates on surrender of share warrant

        3. 781. Offences in connection with share warrants (Scotland)

      7. Supplementary provisions

        1. 782. Issue of certificates etc: court order to make good default

    2. Chapter 2

      Evidencing and transfer of title to securities without written instrument

      1. Introductory

        1. 783. Scope of this Chapter

        2. 784. Power to make regulations

      2. Powers exercisable

        1. 785. Provision enabling procedures for evidencing and transferring title

        2. 786. Provision enabling or requiring arrangements to be adopted

        3. 787. Provision enabling or requiring arrangements to be adopted: order-making powers

      3. Supplementary

        1. 788. Provision that may be included in regulations

        2. 789. Duty to consult

        3. 790. Resolutions to be forwarded to registrar

  22. Part 22

    Information about interests in a company´s shares

    1. Introductory

      1. 791. Companies to which this Part applies

      2. 792. Shares to which this Part applies

    2. Notice requiring information about interests in shares

      1. 793. Notice by company requiring information about interests in its shares

      2. 794. Notice requiring information: order imposing restrictions on shares

      3. 795. Notice requiring information: offences

      4. 796. Notice requiring information: persons exempted from obligation to comply

    3. Orders imposing restrictions on shares

      1. 797. Consequences of order imposing restrictions

      2. 798. Penalty for attempted evasion of restrictions

      3. 799. Relaxation of restrictions

      4. 800. Removal of restrictions

      5. 801. Order for sale of shares

      6. 802. Application of proceeds of sale under court order

    4. Power of members to require company to act

      1. 803. Power of members to require company to act

      2. 804. Duty of company to comply with requirement

      3. 805. Report to members on outcome of investigation

      4. 806. Report to members: offences

      5. 807. Right to inspect and request copy of reports

    5. Register of interests disclosed

      1. 808. Register of interests disclosed

      2. 809. Register to be kept available for inspection

      3. 810. Associated index

      4. 811. Rights to inspect and require copy of entries

      5. 812. Court supervision of purpose for which rights may be exercised

      6. 813. Register of interests disclosed: refusal of inspection or default in providing copy

      7. 814. Register of interests disclosed: offences in connection with request for or disclosure of information

      8. 815. Entries not to be removed from register

      9. 816. Removal of entries from register: old entries

      10. 817. Removal of entries from register: incorrect entry relating to third party

      11. 818. Adjustment of entry relating to share acquisition agreement

      12. 819. Duty of company ceasing to be public company

    6. Meaning of interest in shares

      1. 820. Interest in shares: general

      2. 821. Interest in shares: right to subscribe for shares

      3. 822. Interest in shares: family interests

      4. 823. Interest in shares: corporate interests

      5. 824. Interest in shares: agreement to acquire interests in a particular company

      6. 825. Extent of obligation in case of share acquisition agreement

    7. Other supplementary provisions

      1. 826. Information protected from wider disclosure

      2. 827. Reckoning of periods for fulfilling obligations

      3. 828. Power to make further provision by regulations

  23. Part 23

    Distributions

    1. Chapter 1

      Restrictions on when distributions may be made

      1. Introductory

        1. 829. Meaning of "distribution"

      2. General rules

        1. 830. Distributions to be made only out of profits available for the purpose

        2. 831. Net asset restriction on distributions by public companies

      3. Distributions by investment companies

        1. 832. Distributions by investment companies out of accumulated revenue profits

        2. 833. Meaning of "investment company"

        3. 834. Investment company: condition as to holdings in other companies

        4. 835. Power to extend provisions relating to investment companies

    2. Chapter 2

      Justification of distribution by reference to accounts

      1. Justification of distribution by reference to accounts

        1. 836. Justification of distribution by reference to relevant accounts

      2. Requirements applicable in relation to relevant accounts

        1. 837. Requirements where last annual accounts used

        2. 838. Requirements where interim accounts used

        3. 839. Requirements where initial accounts used

      3. Application of provisions to successive distributions etc

        1. 840. Successive distributions etc by reference to the same accounts

    3. Chapter 3

      Supplementary provisions

      1. Accounting matters

        1. 841. Realised losses and profits and revaluation of fixed assets

        2. 842. Determination of profit or loss in respect of asset where records incomplete

        3. 843. Realised profits and losses of long-term insurance business

        4. 844. Treatment of development costs

      2. Distributions in kind

        1. 845. Distributions in kind: determination of amount

        2. 846. Distributions in kind: treatment of unrealised profits

      3. Consequences of unlawful distribution

        1. 847. Consequences of unlawful distribution

      4. Other matters

        1. 848. Saving for certain older provisions in articles

        2. 849. Restriction on application of unrealised profits

        3. 850. Treatment of certain older profits or losses

        4. 851. Application of rules of law restricting distributions

        5. 852. Saving for other restrictions on distributions

        6. 853. Minor definitions

  24. Part 24

    A company´s annual return

    1. 854. Duty to deliver annual returns

    2. 855. Contents of annual return: general

    3. 856. Contents of annual return: information about share capital and shareholders

    4. 857. Contents of annual return: power to make further provision by regulations

    5. 858. Failure to deliver annual return

    6. 859. Application of provisions to shadow directors

  25. Part 25

    Company charges

    1. Chapter 1

      Companies registered in England and Wales or in Northern Ireland

      1. Requirement to register company charges

        1. 860. Charges created by a company

        2. 861. Charges which have to be registered: supplementary

        3. 862. Charges existing on property acquired

      2. Special rules about debentures

        1. 863. Charge in series of debentures

        2. 864. Additional registration requirement for commission etc in relation to debentures

        3. 865. Endorsement of certificate on debentures

      3. Charges in other jurisdictions

        1. 866. Charges created in, or over property in, jurisdictions outside the United Kingdom

        2. 867. Charges created in, or over property in, another United Kingdom jurisdiction

      4. Orders charging land: Northern Ireland

        1. 868. Northern Ireland: registration of certain charges etc. affecting land

      5. The register of charges

        1. 869. Register of charges to be kept by registrar

        2. 870. The period allowed for registration

        3. 871. Registration of enforcement of security

        4. 872. Entries of satisfaction and release

        5. 873. Rectification of register of charges

      6. Avoidance of certain charges

        1. 874. Consequence of failure to register charges created by a company

      7. Companies' records and registers

        1. 875. Companies to keep copies of instruments creating charges

        2. 876. Company´s register of charges

        3. 877. Instruments creating charges and register of charges to be available for inspection

    2. Chapter 2

      Companies registered in Scotland

      1. Charges requiring registration

        1. 878. Charges created by a company

        2. 879. Charges which have to be registered: supplementary

        3. 880. Duty to register charges existing on property acquired

        4. 881. Charge by way of ex facie absolute disposition, etc

      2. Special rules about debentures

        1. 882. Charge in series of debentures

        2. 883. Additional registration requirement for commission etc in relation to debentures

      3. Charges on property outside the United Kingdom

        1. 884. Charges on property outside United Kingdom

      4. The register of charges

        1. 885. Register of charges to be kept by registrar

        2. 886. The period allowed for registration

        3. 887. Entries of satisfaction and relief

        4. 888. Rectification of register of charges

      5. Avoidance of certain charges

        1. 889. Charges void unless registered

      6. Companies' records and registers

        1. 890. Copies of instruments creating charges to be kept by company

        2. 891. Company´s register of charges

        3. 892. Instruments creating charges and register of charges to be available for inspection

    3. Chapter 3

      Powers of the Secretary of State

      1. 893. Power to make provision for effect of registration in special register

      2. 894. General power to make amendments to this Part

  26. Part 26

    Arrangements and reconstructions

    1. Application of this Part

      1. 895. Application of this Part

    2. Meeting of creditors or members

      1. 896. Court order for holding of meeting

      2. 897. Statement to be circulated or made available

      3. 898. Duty of directors and trustees to provide information

    3. Court sanction for compromise or arrangement

      1. 899. Court sanction for compromise or arrangement

    4. Reconstructions and amalgamations

      1. 900. Powers of court to facilitate reconstruction or amalgamation

    5. Obligations of company with respect to articles etc

      1. 901. Obligations of company with respect to articles etc

  27. Part 27

    Mergers and divisions of public companies

    1. Chapter 1

      Introductory

      1. 902. Application of this Part

      2. 903. Relationship of this Part to Part 26

    2. Chapter 2

      Merger

      1. Introductory

        1. 904. Mergers and merging companies

      2. Requirements applicable to merger

        1. 905. Draft terms of scheme (merger)

        2. 906. Publication of draft terms (merger)

        3. 907. Approval of members of merging companies

        4. 908. Directors' explanatory report (merger)

        5. 909. Expert´s report (merger)

        6. 910. Supplementary accounting statement (merger)

        7. 911. Inspection of documents (merger)

        8. 912. Approval of articles of new transferee company (merger)

        9. 913. Protection of holders of securities to which special rights attached (merger)

        10. 914. No allotment of shares to transferor company or its nominee (merger)

      3. Exceptions where shares of transferor company held by transferee company

        1. 915. Circumstances in which certain particulars and reports not required (merger)

        2. 916. Circumstances in which meeting of members of transferee company not required (merger)

        3. 917. Circumstances in which no meetings required (merger)

      4. Other exceptions

        1. 918. Other circumstances in which meeting of members of transferee company not required (merger)

    3. Chapter 3

      Division

      1. Introductory

        1. 919. Divisions and companies involved in a division

      2. Requirements to be complied with in case of division

        1. 920. Draft terms of scheme (division)

        2. 921. Publication of draft terms (division)

        3. 922. Approval of members of companies involved in the division

        4. 923. Directors' explanatory report (division)

        5. 924. Expert´s report (division)

        6. 925. Supplementary accounting statement (division)

        7. 926. Inspection of documents (division)

        8. 927. Report on material changes of assets of transferor company (division)

        9. 928. Approval of articles of new transferee company (division)

        10. 929. Protection of holders of securities to which special rights attached (division)

        11. 930. No allotment of shares to transferor company or its nominee (division)

      3. Exceptions where shares of transferor company held by transferee company

        1. 931. Circumstances in which meeting of members of transferor company not required (division)

      4. Other exceptions

        1. 932. Circumstances in which meeting of members of transferee company not required (division)

        2. 933. Agreement to dispense with reports etc (division)

        3. 934. Power of court to exclude certain requirements (division)

    4. Chapter 4

      Supplementary provisions

      1. Expert´s report and related matters

        1. 935. Expert´s report: valuation by another person

        2. 936. Experts and valuers: independence requirement

        3. 937. Experts and valuers: meaning of "associate"

      2. Powers of the court

        1. 938. Power of court to summon meeting of members or creditors of existing transferee company

        2. 939. Court to fix date for transfer of undertaking etc of transferor company

      3. Liability of transferee companies

        1. 940. Liability of transferee companies for each other´s defaults

      4. Interpretation

        1. 941. Meaning of "liabilities" and "property"

  28. Part 28

    Takeovers etc

    1. Chapter 1

      The Takeover Panel

      1. The Panel and its rules

        1. 942. The Panel

        2. 943. Rules

        3. 944. Further provisions about rules

        4. 945. Rulings

        5. 946. Directions

      2. Information

        1. 947. Power to require documents and information

        2. 948. Restrictions on disclosure

        3. 949. Offence of disclosure in contravention of section 948

      3. Co-operation

        1. 950. Panel´s duty of co-operation

      4. Hearings and appeals

        1. 951. Hearings and appeals

      5. Contravention of rules etc

        1. 952. Sanctions

        2. 953. Failure to comply with rules about bid documentation

        3. 954. Compensation

        4. 955. Enforcement by the court

        5. 956. No action for breach of statutory duty etc

      6. Funding

        1. 957. Fees and charges

        2. 958. Levy

        3. 959. Recovery of fees, charges or levy

      7. Miscellaneous and supplementary

        1. 960. Panel as party to proceedings

        2. 961. Exemption from liability in damages

        3. 962. Privilege against self-incrimination

        4. 963. Annual reports

        5. 964. Amendments to Financial Services and Markets Act 2000

        6. 965. Power to extend to Isle of Man and Channel Islands

    2. Chapter 2

      Impediments to takeovers

      1. Opting in and opting out

        1. 966. Opting in and opting out

        2. 967. Further provision about opting-in and opting-out resolutions

      2. Consequences of opting in

        1. 968. Effect on contractual restrictions

        2. 969. Power of offeror to require general meeting to be called

      3. Supplementary

        1. 970. Communication of decisions

        2. 971. Interpretation of Chapter

        3. 972. Transitory provision

        4. 973. Power to extend to Isle of Man and Channel Islands

    3. Chapter 3

      "Squeeze-out" and "Sell-out"

      1. Takeover offers

        1. 974. Meaning of "takeover offer"

        2. 975. Shares already held by the offeror etc

        3. 976. Cases where offer treated as being on same terms

        4. 977. Shares to which an offer relates

        5. 978. Effect of impossibility etc of communicating or accepting offer

      2. "Squeeze-out"

        1. 979. Right of offeror to buy out minority shareholder

        2. 980. Further provision about notices given under section 979

        3. 981. Effect of notice under section 979

        4. 982. Further provision about consideration held on trust under section 981(9)

      3. "Sell-out"

        1. 983. Right of minority shareholder to be bought out by offeror

        2. 984. Further provision about rights conferred by section 983

        3. 985. Effect of requirement under section 983

      4. Supplementary

        1. 986. Applications to the court

        2. 987. Joint offers

      5. Interpretation

        1. 988. Associates

        2. 989. Convertible securities

        3. 990. Debentures carrying voting rights

        4. 991. Interpretation

    4. Chapter 4

      Amendments to Part 7 of the Companies Act 1985

      1. 992. Matters to be dealt with in directors' report

  29. Part 29

    Fraudulent trading

    1. 993. Offence of fraudulent trading

  30. Part 30

    Protection of members against unfair prejudice

    1. Main provisions

      1. 994. Petition by company member

      2. 995. Petition by Secretary of State

      3. 996. Powers of the court under this Part

    2. Supplementary provisions

      1. 997. Application of general rule-making powers

      2. 998. Copy of order affecting company´s constitution to be delivered to registrar

      3. 999. Supplementary provisions where company´s constitution altered

  31. Part 31

    Dissolution and restoration to the register

    1. Chapter 1

      Striking off

      1. Registrar´s power to strike off defunct company

        1. 1000. Power to strike off company not carrying on business or in operation

        2. 1001. Duty to act in case of company being wound up

        3. 1002. Supplementary provisions as to service of letter or notice

      2. Voluntary striking off

        1. 1003. Striking off on application by company

        2. 1004. Circumstances in which application not to be made: activities of company

        3. 1005. Circumstances in which application not to be made: other proceedings not concluded

        4. 1006. Copy of application to be given to members, employees, etc

        5. 1007. Copy of application to be given to new members, employees, etc

        6. 1008. Copy of application: provisions as to service of documents

        7. 1009. Circumstances in which application to be withdrawn

        8. 1010. Withdrawal of application

        9. 1011. Meaning of "creditor"

    2. Chapter 2

      Property of dissolved company

      1. Property vesting as bona vacantia

        1. 1012. Property of dissolved company to be bona vacantia

        2. 1013. Crown disclaimer of property vesting as bona vacantia

        3. 1014. Effect of Crown disclaimer

      2. Effect of Crown disclaimer: England and Wales and Northern Ireland

        1. 1015. General effect of disclaimer

        2. 1016. Disclaimer of leaseholds

        3. 1017. Power of court to make vesting order

        4. 1018. Protection of persons holding under a lease

        5. 1019. Land subject to rentcharge

      3. Effect of Crown disclaimer: Scotland

        1. 1020. General effect of disclaimer

        2. 1021. Power of court to make vesting order

        3. 1022. Protection of persons holding under a lease

      4. Supplementary provisions

        1. 1023. Liability for rentcharge on company´s land after dissolution

    3. Chapter 3

      Restoration to the register

      1. Administrative restoration to the register

        1. 1024. Application for administrative restoration to the register

        2. 1025. Requirements for administrative restoration

        3. 1026. Application to be accompanied by statement of compliance

        4. 1027. Registrar´s decision on application for administrative restoration

        5. 1028. Effect of administrative restoration

      2. Restoration to the register by the court

        1. 1029. Application to court for restoration to the register

        2. 1030. When application to the court may be made

        3. 1031. Decision on application for restoration by the court

        4. 1032. Effect of court order for restoration to the register

      3. Supplementary provisions

        1. 1033. Company´s name on restoration

        2. 1034. Effect of restoration to the register where property has vested as bona vacantia

  32. Part 32

    Company investigations: amendments

    1. 1035. Powers of Secretary of State to give directions to inspectors

    2. 1036. Resignation, removal and replacement of inspectors

    3. 1037. Power to obtain information from former inspectors etc

    4. 1038. Power to require production of documents

    5. 1039. Disqualification orders: consequential amendments

  33. Part 33

    UK companies not formed under companies legislation

    1. Chapter 1

      Companies not formed under companies legislation but authorised to register

      1. 1040. Companies authorised to register under this Act

      2. 1041. Definition of "joint stock company"

      3. 1042. Power to make provision by regulations

    2. Chapter 2

      Unregistered companies

      1. 1043. Unregistered companies

  34. Part 34

    Overseas companies

    1. Introductory

      1. 1044. Overseas companies

      2. 1045. Company contracts and execution of documents by companies

    2. Registration of particulars

      1. 1046. Duty to register particulars

      2. 1047. Registered name of overseas company

      3. 1048. Registration under alternative name

    3. Other requirements

      1. 1049. Accounts and reports: general

      2. 1050. Accounts and reports: credit or financial institutions

      3. 1051. Trading disclosures

      4. 1052. Company charges

      5. 1053. Other returns etc

    4. Supplementary

      1. 1054. Offences

      2. 1055. Disclosure of individual´s residential address: protection from disclosure

      3. 1056. Requirement to identify persons authorised to accept service of documents

      4. 1057. Registrar to whom returns, notices etc to be delivered

      5. 1058. Duty to give notice of ceasing to have registrable presence

      6. 1059. Application of provisions in case of relocation of branch

  35. Part 35

    The registrar of companies

    1. The registrar

      1. 1060. The registrar

      2. 1061. The registrar´s functions

      3. 1062. The registrar´s official seal

      4. 1063. Fees payable to registrar

    2. Certificates of incorporation

      1. 1064. Public notice of issue of certificate of incorporation

      2. 1065. Right to certificate of incorporation

    3. Registered numbers

      1. 1066. Company´s registered numbers

      2. 1067. Registered numbers of branches of overseas company

    4. Delivery of documents to the registrar

      1. 1068. Registrar´s requirements as to form, authentication and manner of delivery

      2. 1069. Power to require delivery by electronic means

      3. 1070. Agreement for delivery by electronic means

      4. 1071. Document not delivered until received

    5. Requirements for proper delivery

      1. 1072. Requirements for proper delivery

      2. 1073. Power to accept documents not meeting requirements for proper delivery

      3. 1074. Documents containing unnecessary material

      4. 1075. Informal correction of document

      5. 1076. Replacement of document not meeting requirements for proper delivery

    6. Public notice of receipt of certain documents

      1. 1077. Public notice of receipt of certain documents

      2. 1078. Documents subject to Directive disclosure requirements

      3. 1079. Effect of failure to give public notice

    7. The register

      1. 1080. The register

      2. 1081. Annotation of the register

      3. 1082. Allocation of unique identifiers

      4. 1083. Preservation of original documents

      5. 1084. Records relating to companies that have been dissolved etc

    8. Inspection etc of the register

      1. 1085. Inspection of the register

      2. 1086. Right to copy of material on the register

      3. 1087. Material not available for public inspection

      4. 1088. Application to registrar to make address unavailable for public inspection

      5. 1089. Form of application for inspection or copy

      6. 1090. Form and manner in which copies to be provided

      7. 1091. Certification of copies as accurate

      8. 1092. Issue of process for production of records kept by the registrar

    9. Correction or removal of material on the register

      1. 1093. Registrar´s notice to resolve inconsistency on the register

      2. 1094. Administrative removal of material from the register

      3. 1095. Rectification of register on application to registrar

      4. 1096. Rectification of the register under court order

      5. 1097. Powers of court on ordering removal of material from the register

      6. 1098. Public notice of removal of certain material from the register

    10. The registrar´s index of company names

      1. 1099. The registrar´s index of company names

      2. 1100. Right to inspect index

      3. 1101. Power to amend enactments relating to bodies other than companies

    11. Language requirements: translation

      1. 1102. Application of language requirements

      2. 1103. Documents to be drawn up and delivered in English

      3. 1104. Documents relating to Welsh companies

      4. 1105. Documents that may be drawn up and delivered in other languages

      5. 1106. Voluntary filing of translations

      6. 1107. Certified translations

    12. Language requirements: transliteration

      1. 1108. Transliteration of names and addresses: permitted characters

      2. 1109. Transliteration of names and addresses: voluntary transliteration into Roman characters

      3. 1110. Transliteration of names and addresses: certification

    13. Supplementary provisions

      1. 1111. Registrar´s requirements as to certification or verification

      2. 1112. General false statement offence

      3. 1113. Enforcement of company´s filing obligations

      4. 1114. Application of provisions about documents and delivery

      5. 1115. Supplementary provisions relating to electronic communications

      6. 1116. Alternative to publication in the Gazette

      7. 1117. Registrar´s rules

      8. 1118. Payments into the Consolidated Fund

      9. 1119. Contracting out of registrar´s functions

      10. 1120. Application of Part to overseas companies

  36. Part 36

    Offences under the Companies Acts

    1. Liability of officer in default

      1. 1121. Liability of officer in default

      2. 1122. Liability of company as officer in default

      3. 1123. Application to bodies other than companies

    2. Offences under the Companies Act 1985

      1. 1124. Amendments of the Companies Act 1985

    3. General provisions

      1. 1125. Meaning of "daily default fine"

      2. 1126. Consents required for certain prosecutions

      3. 1127. Summary proceedings: venue

      4. 1128. Summary proceedings: time limit for proceedings

      5. 1129. Legal professional privilege

      6. 1130. Proceedings against unincorporated bodies

      7. 1131. Imprisonment on summary conviction in England and Wales: transitory provision

    4. Production and inspection of documents

      1. 1132. Production and inspection of documents where offence suspected

    5. Supplementary

      1. 1133. Transitional provision

  37. Part 37

    Companies: supplementary provisions

    1. Company records

      1. 1134. Meaning of "company records"

      2. 1135. Form of company records

      3. 1136. Regulations about where certain company records to be kept available for inspection

      4. 1137. Regulations about inspection of records and provision of copies

      5. 1138. Duty to take precautions against falsification

    2. Service addresses

      1. 1139. Service of documents on company

      2. 1140. Service of documents on directors, secretaries and others

      3. 1141. Service addresses

      4. 1142. Requirement to give service address

    3. Sending or supplying documents or information

      1. 1143. The company communications provisions

      2. 1144. Sending or supplying documents or information

      3. 1145. Right to hard copy version

      4. 1146. Requirement of authentication

      5. 1147. Deemed delivery of documents and information

      6. 1148. Interpretation of company communications provisions

    4. Requirements as to independent valuation

      1. 1149. Application of valuation requirements

      2. 1150. Valuation by qualified independent person

      3. 1151. The independence requirement

      4. 1152. Meaning of "associate"

      5. 1153. Valuer entitled to full disclosure

    5. Notice of appointment of certain officers

      1. 1154. Duty to notify registrar of certain appointments etc

      2. 1155. Offence of failure to give notice

    6. Courts and legal proceedings

      1. 1156. Meaning of "the court"

      2. 1157. Power of court to grant relief in certain cases

  38. Part 38

    Companies: interpretation

    1. Meaning of "UK-registered company"

      1. 1158. Meaning of "UK-registered company"

    2. Meaning of "subsidiary" and related expressions

      1. 1159. Meaning of "subsidiary" etc

      2. 1160. Meaning of "subsidiary" etc: power to amend

    3. Meaning of "undertaking" and related expressions

      1. 1161. Meaning of "undertaking" and related expressions

      2. 1162. Parent and subsidiary undertakings

    4. Other definitions

      1. 1163. "Non-cash asset"

      2. 1164. Meaning of "banking company" and "banking group"

      3. 1165. Meaning of "insurance company" and related expressions

      4. 1166. "Employees' share scheme"

      5. 1167. Meaning of "prescribed"

      6. 1168. Hard copy and electronic form and related expressions

      7. 1169. Dormant companies

      8. 1170. Meaning of "EEA State" and related expressions

      9. 1171. The former Companies Acts

    5. General

      1. 1172. References to requirements of this Act

      2. 1173. Minor definitions: general

      3. 1174. Index of defined expressions

  39. Part 39

    Companies: minor amendments

    1. 1175. Removal of special provisions about accounts and audit of charitable companies

    2. 1176. Power of Secretary of State to bring civil proceedings on company´s behalf

    3. 1177. Repeal of certain provisions about company directors

    4. 1178. Repeal of requirement that certain companies publish periodical statement

    5. 1179. Repeal of requirement that Secretary of State prepare annual report

    6. 1180. Repeal of certain provisions about company charges

    7. 1181. Access to constitutional documents of RTE and RTM companies

  40. Part 40

    Company directors: foreign disqualification etc

    1. Introductory

      1. 1182. Persons subject to foreign restrictions

      2. 1183. Meaning of "the court" and "UK company"

    2. Power to disqualify

      1. 1184. Disqualification of persons subject to foreign restrictions

      2. 1185. Disqualification regulations: supplementary

      3. 1186. Offence of breach of disqualification

    3. Power to make persons liable for company´s debts

      1. 1187. Personal liability for debts of company

    4. Power to require statements to be sent to the registrar of companies

      1. 1188. Statements from persons subject to foreign restrictions

      2. 1189. Statements from persons disqualified

      3. 1190. Statements: whether to be made public

      4. 1191. Offences

  41. Part 41

    Business names

    1. Chapter 1

      Restricted or prohibited names

      1. Introductory

        1. 1192. Application of this Chapter

      2. Sensitive words or expressions

        1. 1193. Name suggesting connection with government or public authority

        2. 1194. Other sensitive words or expressions

        3. 1195. Requirement to seek comments of government department or other relevant body

        4. 1196. Withdrawal of Secretary of State´s approval

      3. Misleading names

        1. 1197. Name containing inappropriate indication of company type or legal form

        2. 1198. Name giving misleading indication of activities

      4. Supplementary

        1. 1199. Savings for existing lawful business names

    2. Chapter 2

      Disclosure required in case of individual or partnership

      1. Introductory

        1. 1200. Application of this Chapter

        2. 1201. Information required to be disclosed

      2. Disclosure requirements

        1. 1202. Disclosure required: business documents etc

        2. 1203. Exemption for large partnerships if certain conditions met

        3. 1204. Disclosure required: business premises

      3. Consequences of failure to make required disclosure

        1. 1205. Criminal consequences of failure to make required disclosure

        2. 1206. Civil consequences of failure to make required disclosure

    3. Chapter 3

      Supplementary

      1. 1207. Application of general provisions about offences

      2. 1208. Interpretation

  42. Part 42

    Statutory Auditors

    1. Chapter 1

      Introductory

      1. 1209. Main purposes of Part

      2. 1210. Meaning of "statutory auditor" etc

      3. 1211. Eligibility for appointment as a statutory auditor: overview

    2. Chapter 2

      Individuals and firms

      1. Eligibility for appointment

        1. 1212. Individuals and firms: eligibility for appointment as a statutory auditor

        2. 1213. Effect of ineligibility

      2. Independence requirement

        1. 1214. Independence requirement

        2. 1215. Effect of lack of independence

      3. Effect of appointment of a partnership

        1. 1216. Effect of appointment of a partnership

      4. Supervisory bodies

        1. 1217. Supervisory bodies

        2. 1218. Exemption from liability for damages

      5. Professional qualifications

        1. 1219. Appropriate qualifications

        2. 1220. Qualifying bodies and recognised professional qualifications

        3. 1221. Approval of overseas qualifications

        4. 1222. Eligibility of individuals retaining only 1967 Act authorisation

      6. Information

        1. 1223. Matters to be notified to the Secretary of State

        2. 1224. The Secretary of State´s power to call for information

      7. Enforcement

        1. 1225. Compliance orders

    3. Chapter 3

      Auditors General

      1. Eligibility for appointment

        1. 1226. Auditors General: eligibility for appointment as a statutory auditor

      2. Conduct of audits

        1. 1227. Individuals responsible for audit work on behalf of Auditors General

      3. The Independent Supervisor

        1. 1228. Appointment of the Independent Supervisor

      4. Supervision of Auditors General

        1. 1229. Supervision of Auditors General by the Independent Supervisor

        2. 1230. Duties of Auditors General in relation to supervision arrangements

      5. Reporting requirement

        1. 1231. Reports by the Independent Supervisor

      6. Information

        1. 1232. Matters to be notified to the Independent Supervisor

        2. 1233. The Independent Supervisor´s power to call for information

      7. Enforcement

        1. 1234. Suspension notices

        2. 1235. Effect of suspension notices

        3. 1236. Compliance orders

      8. Proceedings

        1. 1237. Proceedings involving the Independent Supervisor

      9. Grants

        1. 1238. Grants to the Independent Supervisor

    4. Chapter 4

      The register of auditors etc

      1. 1239. The register of auditors

      2. 1240. Information to be made available to public

    5. Chapter 5

      Registered third country auditors

      1. Introductory

        1. 1241. Meaning of "third country auditor", "registered third country auditor" etc

      2. Duties

        1. 1242. Duties of registered third country auditors

      3. Information

        1. 1243. Matters to be notified to the Secretary of State

        2. 1244. The Secretary of State´s power to call for information

      4. Enforcement

        1. 1245. Compliance orders

        2. 1246. Removal of third country auditors from the register of auditors

        3. 1247. Grants to bodies concerned with arrangements under Schedule 12

    6. Chapter 6

      Supplementary and general

      1. Power to require second company audit

        1. 1248. Secretary of State´s power to require second audit of a company

        2. 1249. Supplementary provision about second audits

      2. False and misleading statements

        1. 1250. Misleading, false and deceptive statements

      3. Fees

        1. 1251. Fees

      4. Delegation of Secretary of State´s functions

        1. 1252. Delegation of the Secretary of State´s functions

        2. 1253. Delegation of functions to an existing body

      5. International obligations

        1. 1254. Directions to comply with international obligations

      6. General provision relating to offences

        1. 1255. Offences by bodies corporate, partnerships and unincorporated associations

        2. 1256. Time limits for prosecution of offences

        3. 1257. Jurisdiction and procedure in respect of offences

      7. Notices etc

        1. 1258. Service of notices

        2. 1259. Documents in electronic form

      8. Interpretation

        1. 1260. Meaning of "associate"

        2. 1261. Minor definitions

        3. 1262. Index of defined expressions

      9. Miscellaneous and general

        1. 1263. Power to make provision in consequence of changes affecting accountancy bodies

        2. 1264. Consequential amendments

  43. Part 43

    Transparency obligations and related matters

    1. Introductory

      1. 1265. The transparency obligations directive

    2. Transparency obligations

      1. 1266. Transparency rules

      2. 1267. Competent authority´s power to call for information

      3. 1268. Powers exercisable in case of infringement of transparency obligation

    3. Other matters

      1. 1269. Corporate governance rules

      2. 1270. Liability for false or misleading statements in certain publications

      3. 1271. Exercise of powers where UK is host member State

      4. 1272. Transparency obligations and related matters: minor and consequential amendments

      5. 1273. Corporate governance regulations

  44. Part 44

    Miscellaneous provisions

    1. Regulation of actuaries etc

      1. 1274. Grants to bodies concerned with actuarial standards etc

      2. 1275. Levy to pay expenses of bodies concerned with actuarial standards etc

      3. 1276. Application of provisions to Scotland and Northern Ireland

    2. Information as to exercise of voting rights by institutional investors

      1. 1277. Power to require information about exercise of voting rights

      2. 1278. Institutions to which information provisions apply

      3. 1279. Shares to which information provisions apply

      4. 1280. Obligations with respect to provision of information

    3. Disclosure of information under the Enterprise Act 2002

      1. 1281. Disclosure of information under the Enterprise Act 2002

    4. Expenses of winding up

      1. 1282. Payment of expenses of winding up

    5. Commonhold associations

      1. 1283. Amendment of memorandum or articles of commonhold association

  45. Part 45

    Northern Ireland

    1. 1284. Extension of Companies Acts to Northern Ireland

    2. 1285. Extension of GB enactments relating to SEs

    3. 1286. Extension of GB enactments relating to certain other forms of business organisation

    4. 1287. Extension of enactments relating to business names

  46. Part 46

    General supplementary provisions

    1. Regulations and orders

      1. 1288. Regulations and orders: statutory instrument

      2. 1289. Regulations and orders: negative resolution procedure

      3. 1290. Regulations and orders: affirmative resolution procedure

      4. 1291. Regulations and orders: approval after being made

      5. 1292. Regulations and orders: supplementary

    2. Meaning of "enactment"

      1. 1293. Meaning of "enactment"

    3. Consequential and transitional provisions

      1. 1294. Power to make consequential amendments etc

      2. 1295. Repeals

      3. 1296. Power to make transitional provision and savings

      4. 1297. Continuity of the law

  47. Part 47

    Final provisions

    1. 1298. Short title

    2. 1299. Extent

    3. 1300. Commencement

    1. Schedule 1

      Connected persons: references to an interest in shares or debentures

    2. Schedule 2

      Specified persons, descriptions of disclosures etc for the purposes of section 948

      1. Part 1

        Specified persons

      2. Part 2

        Specified descriptions of disclosures

      3. Part 3

        Overseas regulatory bodies

    3. Schedule 3

      Amendments of remaining provisions of the Companies Act 1985 relating to offences

    4. Schedule 4

      Documents and information sent or supplied to a company

      1. Part 1

        Introduction

      2. Part 2

        Communications in hard copy form

      3. Part 3

        Communications in electronic form

      4. Part 4

        Other agreed forms of communication

    5. Schedule 5

      Communications by a company

      1. Part 1

        Introduction

      2. Part 2

        Communications in hard copy form

      3. Part 3

        Communications in electronic form

      4. Part 4

        Communications by means of a website

      5. Part 5

        Other agreed forms of communication

      6. Part 6

        Supplementary provisions

    6. Schedule 6

      Meaning of "subsidiary" etc: supplementary provisions

    7. Schedule 7

      Parent and subsidiary undertakings: supplementary provisions

    8. Schedule 8

      Index of defined expressions

    9. Schedule 9

      Removal of special provisions about accounts and audit of charitable companies

      1. Part 1

        The Companies Act 1985 (c. 6)

      2. Part 2

        The Companies (Northern Ireland) Order 1986 (S.I. 1986/1032 (N.I. 6)

    10. Schedule 10

      Recognised supervisory bodies

      1. Part 1

        Grant and revocation of recognition of a supervisory body

      2. Part 2

        Requirements for recognition of a supervisory body

      3. Part 3

        Arrangements in which recognised supervisory bodies are required to participate

    11. Schedule 11

      Recognised professional qualifications

      1. Part 1

        Grant and revocation of recognition of a professional qualification

      2. Part 2

        Requirements for recognition of a professional qualification

    12. Schedule 12

      Arrangements in which registered third country auditors are required to participate

    13. Schedule 13

      Supplementary provisions with respect to delegation order

    14. Schedule 14

      Statutory auditors: consequential amendments

    15. Schedule 15

      Transparency obligations and related matters: minor and consequential amendments

      1. Part 1

        Amendments of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000

      2. Part 2

        Amendments of the Companies (Audit, Investigations and Community Enterprise) Act 2004

    16. Schedule 16

      Repeals

An Act to reform company law and restate the greater part of the enactments relating to companies; to make other provision relating to companies and other forms of business organisation; to make provision about directors' disqualification, business names, auditors and actuaries; to amend Part 9 of the Enterprise Act 2002; and for connected purposes.

[8th November 2006]

Be it enacted by the Queen´s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:–

Part 1 General introductory provisions

Companies and Companies Acts

1 Companies

(1) In the Companies Acts, unless the context otherwise requires–

(2) Certain provisions of the Companies Acts apply to–

(a) companies registered, but not formed, under this Act (see Chapter 1 of Part 33), and

(b) bodies incorporated in the United Kingdom but not registered under this Act (see Chapter 2 of that Part).

(3) For provisions applying to companies incorporated outside the United Kingdom, see Part 34 (overseas companies).

2 The Companies Acts

(1) In this Act "the Companies Acts" means–

(a) the company law provisions of this Act,

(b) Part 2 of the Companies (Audit, Investigations and Community Enterprise) Act 2004 (c. 27) (community interest companies), and

(c) the provisions of the Companies Act 1985 (c. 6) and the Companies Consolidation (Consequential Provisions) Act 1985 (c. 9) that remain in force.

(2) The company law provisions of this Act are–

(a) the provisions of Parts 1 to 39 of this Act, and

(b) the provisions of Parts 45 to 47 of this Act so far as they apply for the purposes of those Parts.

Types of company

3 Limited and unlimited companies

(1) A company is a "limited company" if the liability of its members is limited by its constitution.

It may be limited by shares or limited by guarantee.

(2) If their liability is limited to the amount, if any, unpaid on the shares held by them, the company is "limited by shares".

(3) If their liability is limited to such amount as the members undertake to contribute to the assets of the company in the event of its being wound up, the company is "limited by guarantee".

(4) If there is no limit on the liability of its members, the company is an "unlimited company".

4 Private and public companies

(1) A "private company" is any company that is not a public company.

(2) A "public company" is a company limited by shares or limited by guarantee and having a share capital–

(a) whose certificate of incorporation states that it is a public company, and

(b) in relation to which the requirements of this Act, or the former Companies Acts, as to registration or re-registration as a public company have been complied with on or after the relevant date.

(3) For the purposes of subsection (2)(b) the relevant date is–

(a) in relation to registration or re-registration in Great Britain, 22nd December 1980;

(b) in relation to registration or re-registration in Northern Ireland, 1st July 1983.

(4) For the two major differences between private and public companies, see Part 20.

5 Companies limited by guarantee and having share capital

(1) A company cannot be formed as, or become, a company limited by guarantee with a share capital.

(2) Provision to this effect has been in force–

(a) in Great Britain since 22nd December 1980, and

(b) in Northern Ireland since 1st July 1983.

(3) Any provision in the constitution of a company limited by guarantee that purports to divide the company´s undertaking into shares or interests is a provision for a share capital.

This applies whether or not the nominal value or number of the shares or interests is specified by the provision.

6 Community interest companies

(1) In accordance with Part 2 of the Companies (Audit, Investigations and Community Enterprise) Act 2004 (c. 27)

(a) a company limited by shares or a company limited by guarantee and not having a share capital may be formed as or become a community interest company, and

(b) a company limited by guarantee and having a share capital may become a community interest company.

(2) The other provisions of the Companies Acts have effect subject to that Part.

Part 2 Company formation

General

7 Method of forming company

(1) A company is formed under this Act by one or more persons–

(a) subscribing their names to a memorandum of association (see section 8), and

(b) complying with the requirements of this Act as to registration (see sections 9 to 13).

(2) A company may not be so formed for an unlawful purpose.

8 Memorandum of association

(1) A memorandum of association is a memorandum stating that the subscribers–

(a) wish to form a company under this Act, and

(b) agree to become members of the company and, in the case of a company that is to have a share capital, to take at least one share each.

(2) The memorandum must be in the prescribed form and must be authenticated by each subscriber.

Requirements for registration

9 Registration documents

(1) The memorandum of association must be delivered to the registrar together with an application for registration of the company, the documents required by this section and a statement of compliance.

(2) The application for registration must state–

(a) the company´s proposed name,

(b) whether the company´s registered office is to be situated in England and Wales (or in Wales), in Scotland or in Northern Ireland,

(c) whether the liability of the members of the company is to be limited, and if so whether it is to be limited by shares or by guarantee, and

(d) whether the company is to be a private or a public company.

(3) If the application is delivered by a person as agent for the subscribers to the memorandum of association, it must state his name and address.

(4) The application must contain–

(a) in the case of a company that is to have a share capital, a statement of capital and initial shareholdings (see section 10);

(b) in the case of a company that is to be limited by guarantee, a statement of guarantee (see section 11);

(c) a statement of the company´s proposed officers (see section 12).

(5) The application must also contain–

(a) a statement of the intended address of the company´s registered office; and

(b) a copy of any proposed articles of association (to the extent that these are not supplied by the default application of model articles: see section 20).

(6) The application must be delivered–

(a) to the registrar of companies for England and Wales, if the registered office of the company is to be situated in England and Wales (or in Wales);

(b) to the registrar of companies for Scotland, if the registered office of the company is to be situated in Scotland;

(c) to the registrar of companies for Northern Ireland, if the registered office of the company is to be situated in Northern Ireland.

10 Statement of capital and initial shareholdings

(1) The statement of capital and initial shareholdings required to be delivered in the case of a company that is to have a share capital must comply with this section.

(2) It must state–

(a) the total number of shares of the company to be taken on formation by the subscribers to the memorandum of association,

(b) the aggregate nominal value of those shares,

(c) for each class of shares–

(i) prescribed particulars of the rights attached to the shares,

(ii) the total number of shares of that class, and

(iii) the aggregate nominal value of shares of that class, and

(d) the amount to be paid up and the amount (if any) to be unpaid on each share (whether on account of the nominal value of the share or by way of premium).

(3) It must contain such information as may be prescribed for the purpose of identifying the subscribers to the memorandum of association.

(4) It must state, with respect to each subscriber to the memorandum–

(a) the number, nominal value (of each share) and class of shares to be taken by him on formation, and

(b) the amount to be paid up and the amount (if any) to be unpaid on each share (whether on account of the nominal value of the share or by way of premium).

(5) Where a subscriber to the memorandum is to take shares of more than one class, the information required under subsection (4)(a) is required for each class.

11 Statement of guarantee

(1) The statement of guarantee required to be delivered in the case of a company that is to be limited by guarantee must comply with this section.

(2) It must contain such information as may be prescribed for the purpose of identifying the subscribers to the memorandum of association.

(3) It must state that each member undertakes that, if the company is wound up while he is a member, or within one year after he ceases to be a member, he will contribute to the assets of the company such amount as may be required for–

(a) payment of the debts and liabilities of the company contracted before he ceases to be a member,

(b) payment of the costs, charges and expenses of winding up, and

(c) adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves,

not exceeding a specified amount.

12 Statement of proposed officers

(1) The statement of the company´s proposed officers required to be delivered to the registrar must contain the required particulars of–

(a) the person who is, or persons who are, to be the first director or directors of the company;

(b) in the case of a company that is to be a private company, any person who is (or any persons who are) to be the first secretary (or joint secretaries) of the company;

(c) in the case of a company that is to be a public company, the person who is (or the persons who are) to be the first secretary (or joint secretaries) of the company.

(2) The required particulars are the particulars that will be required to be stated–

(a) in the case of a director, in the company´s register of directors and register of directors' residential addresses (see sections 162 to 166);

(b) in the case of a secretary, in the company´s register of secretaries (see sections 277 to 279).

(3) The statement must also contain a consent by each of the persons named as a director, as secretary or as one of joint secretaries, to act in the relevant capacity.

If all the partners in a firm are to be joint secretaries, consent may be given by one partner on behalf of all of them.

13 Statement of compliance

(1) The statement of compliance required to be delivered to the registrar is a statement that the requirements of this Act as to registration have been complied with.

(2) The registrar may accept the statement of compliance as sufficient evidence of compliance.

Registration and its effect

14 Registration

If the registrar is satisfied that the requirements of this Act as to registration are complied with, he shall register the documents delivered to him.

15 Issue of certificate of incorporation

(1) On the registration of a company, the registrar of companies shall give a certificate that the company is incorporated.

(2) The certificate must state–

(a) the name and registered number of the company,

(b) the date of its incorporation,

(c) whether it is a limited or unlimited company, and if it is limited whether it is limited by shares or limited by guarantee,

(d) whether it is a private or a public company, and

(e) whether the company´s registered office is situated in England and Wales (or in Wales), in Scotland or in Northern Ireland.

(3) The certificate must be signed by the registrar or authenticated by the registrar´s official seal.

(4) The certificate is conclusive evidence that the requirements of this Act as to registration have been complied with and that the company is duly registered under this Act.

16 Effect of registration

(1) The registration of a company has the following effects as from the date of incorporation.

(2) The subscribers to the memorandum, together with such other persons as may from time to time become members of the company, are a body corporate by the name stated in the certificate of incorporation.

(3) That body corporate is capable of exercising all the functions of an incorporated company.

(4) The status and registered office of the company are as stated in, or in connection with, the application for registration.

(5) In the case of a company having a share capital, the subscribers to the memorandum become holders of the shares specified in the statement of capital and initial shareholdings.

(6) The persons named in the statement of proposed officers–

(a) as director, or

(b) as secretary or joint secretary of the company,

are deemed to have been appointed to that office.

Part 3 A company´s constitution

Chapter 1 Introductory

17 A company´s constitution

Unless the context otherwise requires, references in the Companies Acts to a company´s constitution include–

(a) the company´s articles, and

(b) any resolutions and agreements to which Chapter 3 applies (see section 29).

Chapter 2 Articles of association

General

18 Articles of association

(1) A company must have articles of association prescribing regulations for the company.

(2) Unless it is a company to which model articles apply by virtue of section 20 (default application of model articles in case of limited company), it must register articles of association.

(3) Articles of association registered by a company must–

(a) be contained in a single document, and

(b) be divided into paragraphs numbered consecutively.

(4) References in the Companies Acts to a company´s "articles" are to its articles of association.

19 Power of Secretary of State to prescribe model articles

(1) The Secretary of State may by regulations prescribe model articles of association for companies.

(2) Different model articles may be prescribed for different descriptions of company.

(3) A company may adopt all or any of the provisions of model articles.

(4) Any amendment of model articles by regulations under this section does not affect a company registered before the amendment takes effect.

(5) Regulations under this section are subject to negative resolution procedure.

20 Default application of model articles

(1) On the formation of a limited company–

(a) if articles are not registered, or

(b) if articles are registered, in so far as they do not exclude or modify the relevant model articles,

the relevant model articles (so far as applicable) form part of the company´s articles in the same manner and to the same extent as if articles in the form of those articles had been duly registered.

(2) The "relevant model articles" means the model articles prescribed for a company of that description as in force at the date on which the company is registered.

Alteration of articles

21 Amendment of articles

(1) A company may amend its articles by special resolution.

(2) In the case of a company that is a charity, this is subject to–

(a) in England and Wales, section 64 of the Charities Act 1993 (c. 10);

(b) in Northern Ireland, Article 9 of the Charities (Northern Ireland) Order 1987 (S.I. 1987/2048 (N.I. 19)).

(3) In the case of a company that is registered in the Scottish Charity Register, this is subject to–

(a) section 112 of the Companies Act 1989 (c. 40), and

(b) section 16 of the Charities and Trustee Investment (Scotland) Act 2005 (asp 10).

22 Entrenched provisions of the articles

(1) A company´s articles may contain provision ("provision for entrenchment") to the effect that specified provisions of the articles may be amended or repealed only if conditions are met, or procedures are complied with, that are more restrictive than those applicable in the case of a special resolution.

(2) Provision for entrenchment may only be made–

(a) in the company´s articles on formation, or

(b) by an amendment of the company´s articles agreed to by all the members of the company.

(3) Provision for entrenchment does not prevent amendment of the company´s articles–

(a) by agreement of all the members of the company, or

(b) by order of a court or other authority having power to alter the company´s articles.

(4) Nothing in this section affects any power of a court or other authority to alter a company´s articles.

23 Notice to registrar of existence of restriction on amendment of articles

(1) Where a company´s articles–

(a) on formation contain provision for entrenchment,

(b) are amended so as to include such provision, or

(c) are altered by order of a court or other authority so as to restrict or exclude the power of the company to amend its articles,

the company must give notice of that fact to the registrar.

(2) Where a company´s articles–

(a) are amended so as to remove provision for entrenchment, or

(b) are altered by order of a court or other authority–

(i) so as to remove such provision, or

(ii) so as to remove any other restriction on, or any exclusion of, the power of the company to amend its articles,

the company must give notice of that fact to the registrar.

24 Statement of compliance where amendment of articles restricted

(1) This section applies where a company´s articles are subject–

(a) to provision for entrenchment, or

(b) to an order of a court or other authority restricting or excluding the company´s power to amend the articles.

(2) If the company–

(a) amends its articles, and

(b) is required to send to the registrar a document making or evidencing the amendment,

the company must deliver with that document a statement of compliance.

(3) The statement of compliance required is a statement certifying that the amendment has been made in accordance with the company´s articles and, where relevant, any applicable order of a court or other authority.

(4) The registrar may rely on the statement of compliance as sufficient evidence of the matters stated in it.

25 Effect of alteration of articles on company´s members

(1) A member of a company is not bound by an alteration to its articles after the date on which he became a member, if and so far as the alteration–

(a) requires him to take or subscribe for more shares than the number held by him at the date on which the alteration is made, or

(b) in any way increases his liability as at that date to contribute to the company´s share capital or otherwise to pay money to the company.

(2) Subsection (1) does not apply in a case where the member agrees in writing, either before or after the alteration is made, to be bound by the alteration.

26 Registrar to be sent copy of amended articles

(1) Where a company amends its articles it must send to the registrar a copy of the articles as amended not later than 15 days after the amendment takes effect.

(2) This section does not require a company to set out in its articles any provisions of model articles that–

(a) are applied by the articles, or

(b) apply by virtue of section 20 (default application of model articles).

(3) If a company fails to comply with this section an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

(4) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 3 on the standard scale.

27 Registrar´s notice to comply in case of failure with respect to amended articles

(1) If it appears to the registrar that a company has failed to comply with any enactment requiring it–

(a) to send to the registrar a document making or evidencing an alteration in the company´s articles, or

(b) to send to the registrar a copy of the company´s articles as amended,

the registrar may give notice to the company requiring it to comply.

(2) The notice must–

(a) state the date on which it is issued, and

(b) require the company to comply within 28 days from that date.

(3) If the company complies with the notice within the specified time, no criminal proceedings may be brought in respect of the failure to comply with the enactment mentioned in subsection (1).

(4) If the company does not comply with the notice within the specified time, it is liable to a civil penalty of £200.

This is in addition to any liability to criminal proceedings in respect of the failure mentioned in subsection (1).

(5) The penalty may be recovered by the registrar and is to be paid into the Consolidated Fund.

Supplementary

28 Existing companies: provisions of memorandum treated as provisions of articles

(1) Provisions that immediately before the commencement of this Part were contained in a company´s memorandum but are not provisions of the kind mentioned in section 8 (provisions of new-style memorandum) are to be treated after the commencement of this Part as provisions of the company´s articles.

(2) This applies not only to substantive provisions but also to provision for entrenchment (as defined in section 22).

(3) The provisions of this Part about provision for entrenchment apply to such provision as they apply to provision made on the company´s formation, except that the duty under section 23(1)(a) to give notice to the registrar does not apply.

Chapter 3 Resolutions and agreements affecting a company´s constitution

29 Resolutions and agreements affecting a company´s constitution

(1) This Chapter applies to–

(a) any special resolution;

(b) any resolution or agreement agreed to by all the members of a company that, if not so agreed to, would not have been effective for its purpose unless passed as a special resolution;

(c) any resolution or agreement agreed to by all the members of a class of shareholders that, if not so agreed to, would not have been effective for its purpose unless passed by some particular majority or otherwise in some particular manner;

(d) any resolution or agreement that effectively binds all members of a class of shareholders though not agreed to by all those members;

(e) any other resolution or agreement to which this Chapter applies by virtue of any enactment.

(2) References in subsection (1) to a member of a company, or of a class of members of a company, do not include the company itself where it is such a member by virtue only of its holding shares as treasury shares.

30 Copies of resolutions or agreements to be forwarded to registrar

(1) A copy of every resolution or agreement to which this Chapter applies, or (in the case of a resolution or agreement that is not in writing) a written memorandum setting out its terms, must be forwarded to the registrar within 15 days after it is passed or made.

(2) If a company fails to comply with this section, an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of it who is in default.

(3) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 3 on the standard scale.

(4) For the purposes of this section, a liquidator of the company is treated as an officer of it.

Chapter 4 Miscellaneous and supplementary provisions

Statement of company´s objects

31 Statement of company´s objects

(1) Unless a company´s articles specifically restrict the objects of the company, its objects are unrestricted.

(2) Where a company amends its articles so as to add, remove or alter a statement of the company´s objects–

(a) it must give notice to the registrar,

(b) on receipt of the notice, the registrar shall register it, and

(c) the amendment is not effective until entry of that notice on the register.

(3) Any such amendment does not affect any rights or obligations of the company or render defective any legal proceedings by or against it.

(4) In the case of a company that is a charity, the provisions of this section have effect subject to–

(a) in England and Wales, section 64 of the Charities Act 1993 (c. 10);

(b) in Northern Ireland, Article 9 of the Charities (Northern Ireland) Order 1987 (S.I. 1987/2048 (N.I. 19)).

(5) In the case of a company that is entered in the Scottish Charity Register, the provisions of this section have effect subject to the provisions of the Charities and Trustee Investment (Scotland) Act 2005 (asp 10).

Other provisions with respect to a company´s constitution

32 Constitutional documents to be provided to members

(1) A company must, on request by any member, send to him the following documents–

(a) an up-to-date copy of the company´s articles;

(b) a copy of any resolution or agreement relating to the company to which Chapter 3 applies (resolutions and agreements affecting a company´s constitution) and that is for the time being in force;

(c) a copy of any document required to be sent to the registrar under–

(i) section 34(2) (notice where company´s constitution altered by enactment), or

(ii) section 35(2)(a) (notice where order of court or other authority alters company´s constitution);

(d) a copy of any court order under section 899 (order sanctioning compromise or arrangement) or section 900 (order facilitating reconstruction or amalgamation);

(e) a copy of any court order under section 996 (protection of members against unfair prejudice: powers of the court) that alters the company´s constitution;

(f) a copy of the company´s current certificate of incorporation, and of any past certificates of incorporation;

(g) in the case of a company with a share capital, a current statement of capital;

(h) in the case of a company limited by guarantee, a copy of the statement of guarantee.

(2) The statement of capital required by subsection (1)(g) is a statement of–

(a) the total number of shares of the company,

(b) the aggregate nominal value of those shares,

(c) for each class of shares–

(i) prescribed particulars of the rights attached to the shares,

(ii) the total number of shares of that class, and

(iii) the aggregate nominal value of shares of that class, and

(d) the amount paid up and the amount (if any) unpaid on each share (whether on account of the nominal value of the share or by way of premium).

(3) If a company makes default in complying with this section, an offence is committed by every officer of the company who is in default.

(4) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

33 Effect of company´s constitution

(1) The provisions of a company´s constitution bind the company and its members to the same extent as if there were covenants on the part of the company and of each member to observe those provisions.

(2) Money payable by a member to the company under its constitution is a debt due from him to the company.

In England and Wales and Northern Ireland it is of the nature of an ordinary contract debt.

34 Notice to registrar where company´s constitution altered by enactment

(1) This section applies where a company´s constitution is altered by an enactment, other than an enactment amending the general law.

(2) The company must give notice of the alteration to the registrar, specifying the enactment, not later than 15 days after the enactment comes into force.

In the case of a special enactment the notice must be accompanied by a copy of the enactment.

(3) If the enactment amends–

(a) the company´s articles, or

(b) a resolution or agreement to which Chapter 3 applies (resolutions and agreements affecting a company´s constitution),

the notice must be accompanied by a copy of the company´s articles, or the resolution or agreement in question, as amended.

(4) A "special enactment" means an enactment that is not a public general enactment, and includes–

(a) an Act for confirming a provisional order,

(b) any provision of a public general Act in relation to the passing of which any of the standing orders of the House of Lords or the House of Commons relating to Private Business applied, or

(c) any enactment to the extent that it is incorporated in or applied for the purposes of a special enactment.

(5) If a company fails to comply with this section an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

(6) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 3 on the standard scale.

35 Notice to registrar where company´s constitution altered by order

(1) Where a company´s constitution is altered by an order of a court or other authority, the company must give notice to the registrar of the alteration not later than 15 days after the alteration takes effect.

(2) The notice must be accompanied by–

(a) a copy of the order, and

(b) if the order amends–

(i) the company´s articles, or

(ii) a resolution or agreement to which Chapter 3 applies (resolutions and agreements affecting the company´s constitution),

a copy of the company´s articles, or the resolution or agreement in question, as amended.

(3) If a company fails to comply with this section an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

(4) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 3 on the standard scale.

(5) This section does not apply where provision is made by another enactment for the delivery to the registrar of a copy of the order in question.

36 Documents to be incorporated in or accompany copies of articles issued by company

(1) Every copy of a company´s articles issued by the company must be accompanied by–

(a) a copy of any resolution or agreement relating to the company to which Chapter 3 applies (resolutions and agreements affecting a company´s constitution),

(b) where the company has been required to give notice to the registrar under section 34(2) (notice where company´s constitution altered by enactment), a statement that the enactment in question alters the effect of the company´s constitution,

(c) where the company´s constitution is altered by a special enactment (see section 34(4)), a copy of the enactment, and

(d) a copy of any order required to be sent to the registrar under section 35(2)(a) (order of court or other authority altering company´s constitution).

(2) This does not require the articles to be accompanied by a copy of a document or by a statement if–

(a) the effect of the resolution, agreement, enactment or order (as the case may be) on the company´s constitution has been incorporated into the articles by amendment, or

(b) the resolution, agreement, enactment or order (as the case may be) is not for the time being in force.

(3) If the company fails to comply with this section, an offence is committed by every officer of the company who is in default.

(4) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale for each occasion on which copies are issued, or, as the case may be, requested.

(5) For the purposes of this section, a liquidator of the company is treated as an officer of it.

Supplementary provisions

37 Right to participate in profits otherwise than as member void

In the case of a company limited by guarantee and not having a share capital any provision in the company´s articles, or in any resolution of the company, purporting to give a person a right to participate in the divisible profits of the company otherwise than as a member is void.

38 Application to single member companies of enactments and rules of law

Any enactment or rule of law applicable to companies formed by two or more persons or having two or more members applies with any necessary modification in relation to a company formed by one person or having only one person as a member.

Part 4 A company´s capacity and related matters

Capacity of company and power of directors to bind it

39 A company´s capacity

(1) The validity of an act done by a company shall not be called into question on the ground of lack of capacity by reason of anything in the company´s constitution.

(2) This section has effect subject to section 42 (companies that are charities).

40 Power of directors to bind the company

(1) In favour of a person dealing with a company in good faith, the power of the directors to bind the company, or authorise others to do so, is deemed to be free of any limitation under the company´s constitution.

(2) For this purpose–

(a) a person "deals with" a company if he is a party to any transaction or other act to which the company is a party,

(b) a person dealing with a company–

(i) is not bound to enquire as to any limitation on the powers of the directors to bind the company or authorise others to do so,

(ii) is presumed to have acted in good faith unless the contrary is proved, and

(iii) is not to be regarded as acting in bad faith by reason only of his knowing that an act is beyond the powers of the directors under the company´s constitution.

(3) The references above to limitations on the directors' powers under the company´s constitution include limitations deriving–

(a) from a resolution of the company or of any class of shareholders, or

(b) from any agreement between the members of the company or of any class of shareholders.

(4) This section does not affect any right of a member of the company to bring proceedings to restrain the doing of an action that is beyond the powers of the directors.

But no such proceedings lie in respect of an act to be done in fulfilment of a legal obligation arising from a previous act of the company.

(5) This section does not affect any liability incurred by the directors, or any other person, by reason of the directors' exceeding their powers.

(6) This section has effect subject to–

41 Constitutional limitations: transactions involving directors or their associates

(1) This section applies to a transaction if or to the extent that its validity depends on section 40 (power of directors deemed to be free of limitations under company´s constitution in favour of person dealing with company in good faith).

Nothing in this section shall be read as excluding the operation of any other enactment or rule of law by virtue of which the transaction may be called in question or any liability to the company may arise.

(2) Where–

(a) a company enters into such a transaction, and

(b) the parties to the transaction include–

(i) a director of the company or of its holding company, or

(ii) a person connected with any such director,

the transaction is voidable at the instance of the company.

(3) Whether or not it is avoided, any such party to the transaction as is mentioned in subsection (2)(b)(i) or (ii), and any director of the company who authorised the transaction, is liable–

(a) to account to the company for any gain he has made directly or indirectly by the transaction, and

(b) to indemnify the company for any loss or damage resulting from the transaction.

(4) The transaction ceases to be voidable if–

(a) restitution of any money or other asset which was the subject matter of the transaction is no longer possible, or

(b) the company is indemnified for any loss or damage resulting from the transaction, or

(c) rights acquired bona fide for value and without actual notice of the directors' exceeding their powers by a person who is not party to the transaction would be affected by the avoidance, or

(d) the transaction is affirmed by the company.

(5) A person other than a director of the company is not liable under subsection (3) if he shows that at the time the transaction was entered into he did not know that the directors were exceeding their powers.

(6) Nothing in the preceding provisions of this section affects the rights of any party to the transaction not within subsection (2)(b)(i) or (ii).

But the court may, on the application of the company or any such party, make an order affirming, severing or setting aside the transaction on such terms as appear to the court to be just.

(7) In this section–

(a) "transaction" includes any act; and

(b) the reference to a person connected with a director has the same meaning as in Part 10 (company directors).

42 Constitutional limitations: companies that are charities

(1) Sections 39 and 40 (company´s capacity and power of directors to bind company) do not apply to the acts of a company that is a charity except in favour of a person who–

(a) does not know at the time the act is done that the company is a charity, or

(b) gives full consideration in money or money´s worth in relation to the act in question and does not know (as the case may be)–

(i) that the act is not permitted by the company´s constitution, or

(ii) that the act is beyond the powers of the directors.

(2) Where a company that is a charity purports to transfer or grant an interest in property, the fact that (as the case may be)–

(a) the act was not permitted by the company´s constitution, or

(b) the directors in connection with the act exceeded any limitation on their powers under the company´s constitution,

does not affect the title of a person who subsequently acquires the property or any interest in it for full consideration without actual notice of any such circumstances affecting the validity of the company´s act.

(3) In any proceedings arising out of subsection (1) or (2) the burden of proving–

(a) that a person knew that the company was a charity, or

(b) that a person knew that an act was not permitted by the company´s constitution or was beyond the powers of the directors,

lies on the person asserting that fact.

(4) In the case of a company that is a charity the affirmation of a transaction to which section 41 applies (transactions with directors or their associates) is ineffective without the prior written consent of–

(a) in England and Wales, the Charity Commission;

(b) in Northern Ireland, the Department for Social Development.

(5) This section does not extend to Scotland (but see section 112 of the Companies Act 1989 (c. 40)).

Formalities of doing business under the law of England and Wales or Northern Ireland

43 Company contracts

(1) Under the law of England and Wales or Northern Ireland a contract may be made–

(a) by a company, by writing under its common seal, or

(b) on behalf of a company, by a person acting under its authority, express or implied.

(2) Any formalities required by law in the case of a contract made by an individual also apply, unless a contrary intention appears, to a contract made by or on behalf of a company.

44 Execution of documents

(1) Under the law of England and Wales or Northern Ireland a document is executed by a company–

(a) by the affixing of its common seal, or

(b) by signature in accordance with the following provisions.

(2) A document is validly executed by a company if it is signed on behalf of the company–

(a) by two authorised signatories, or

(b) by a director of the company in the presence of a witness who attests the signature.

(3) The following are "authorised signatories" for the purposes of subsection (2)–

(a) every director of the company, and

(b) in the case of a private company with a secretary or a public company, the secretary (or any joint secretary) of the company.

(4) A document signed in accordance with subsection (2) and expressed, in whatever words, to be executed by the company has the same effect as if executed under the common seal of the company.

(5) In favour of a purchaser a document is deemed to have been duly executed by a company if it purports to be signed in accordance with subsection (2).

A "purchaser" means a purchaser in good faith for valuable consideration and includes a lessee, mortgagee or other person who for valuable consideration acquires an interest in property.

(6) Where a document is to be signed by a person on behalf of more than one company, it is not duly signed by that person for the purposes of this section unless he signs it separately in each capacity.

(7) References in this section to a document being (or purporting to be) signed by a director or secretary are to be read, in a case where that office is held by a firm, as references to its being (or purporting to be) signed by an individual authorised by the firm to sign on its behalf.

(8) This section applies to a document that is (or purports to be) executed by a company in the name of or on behalf of another person whether or not that person is also a company.

45 Common seal

(1) A company may have a common seal, but need not have one.

(2) A company which has a common seal shall have its name engraved in legible characters on the seal.

(3) If a company fails to comply with subsection (2) an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

(4) An officer of a company, or a person acting on behalf of a company, commits an offence if he uses, or authorises the use of, a seal purporting to be a seal of the company on which its name is not engraved as required by subsection (2).

(5) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

(6) This section does not form part of the law of Scotland.

46 Execution of deeds

(1) A document is validly executed by a company as a deed for the purposes of section 1(2)(b) of the Law of Property (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1989 (c. 34) and for the purposes of the law of Northern Ireland if, and only if–

(a) it is duly executed by the company, and

(b) it is delivered as a deed.

(2) For the purposes of subsection (1)(b) a document is presumed to be delivered upon its being executed, unless a contrary intention is proved.

47 Execution of deeds or other documents by attorney

(1) Under the law of England and Wales or Northern Ireland a company may, by instrument executed as a deed, empower a person, either generally or in respect of specified matters, as its attorney to execute deeds or other documents on its behalf.

(2) A deed or other document so executed, whether in the United Kingdom or elsewhere, has effect as if executed by the company.

Formalities of doing business under the law of Scotland

48 Execution of documents by companies

(1) The following provisions form part of the law of Scotland only.

(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of any enactment, a company need not have a company seal.

(3) For the purposes of any enactment–

(a) providing for a document to be executed by a company by affixing its common seal, or

(b) referring (in whatever terms) to a document so executed,

a document signed or subscribed by or on behalf of the company in accordance with the provisions of the Requirements of Writing (Scotland) Act 1995 (c. 7) has effect as if so executed.

Other matters

49 Official seal for use abroad

(1) A company that has a common seal may have an official seal for use outside the United Kingdom.

(2) The official seal must be a facsimile of the company´s common seal, with the addition on its face of the place or places where it is to be used.

(3) The official seal when duly affixed to a document has the same effect as the company´s common seal.

This subsection does not extend to Scotland.

(4) A company having an official seal for use outside the United Kingdom may–

(a) by writing under its common seal, or

(b) as respects Scotland, by writing subscribed in accordance with the Requirements of Writing (Scotland) Act 1995,

authorise any person appointed for the purpose to affix the official seal to any deed or other document to which the company is party.

(5) As between the company and a person dealing with such an agent, the agent´s authority continues–

(a) during the period mentioned in the instrument conferring the authority, or

(b) if no period is mentioned, until notice of the revocation or termination of the agent´s authority has been given to the person dealing with him.

(6) The person affixing the official seal must certify in writing on the deed or other document to which the seal is affixed the date on which, and place at which, it is affixed.

50 Official seal for share certificates etc

(1) A company that has a common seal may have an official seal for use–

(a) for sealing securities issued by the company, or

(b) for sealing documents creating or evidencing securities so issued.

(2) The official seal–

(a) must be a facsimile of the company´s common seal, with the addition on its face of the word "Securities", and

(b) when duly affixed to the document has the same effect as the company´s common seal.

51 Pre-incorporation contracts, deeds and obligations

(1) A contract that purports to be made by or on behalf of a company at a time when the company has not been formed has effect, subject to any agreement to the contrary, as one made with the person purporting to act for the company or as agent for it, and he is personally liable on the contract accordingly.

(2) Subsection (1) applies–

(a) to the making of a deed under the law of England and Wales or Northern Ireland, and

(b) to the undertaking of an obligation under the law of Scotland,

as it applies to the making of a contract.

52 Bills of exchange and promissory notes

A bill of exchange or promissory note is deemed to have been made, accepted or endorsed on behalf of a company if made, accepted or endorsed in the name of, or by or on behalf or on account of, the company by a person acting under its authority.

Part 5 A company´s name

Chapter 1 General requirements

Prohibited names

53 Prohibited names

A company must not be registered under this Act by a name if, in the opinion of the Secretary of State–

(a) its use by the company would constitute an offence, or

(b) it is offensive.

Sensitive words and expressions

54 Names suggesting connection with government or public authority

(1) The approval of the Secretary of State is required for a company to be registered under this Act by a name that would be likely to give the impression that the company is connected with–

(a) Her Majesty´s Government, any part of the Scottish administration or Her Majesty´s Government in Northern Ireland,

(b) a local authority, or

(c) any public authority specified for the purposes of this section by regulations made by the Secretary of State.

(2) For the purposes of this section–

(3) Regulations under this section are subject to affirmative resolution procedure.

55 Other sensitive words or expressions

(1) The approval of the Secretary of State is required for a company to be registered under this Act by a name that includes a word or expression for the time being specified in regulations made by the Secretary of State under this section.

(2) Regulations under this section are subject to approval after being made.

56 Duty to seek comments of government department or other specified body

(1) The Secretary of State may by regulations under–

(a) section 54 (name suggesting connection with government or public authority), or

(b) section 55 (other sensitive words or expressions),

require that, in connection with an application for the approval of the Secretary of State under that section, the applicant must seek the view of a specified Government department or other body.

(2) Where such a requirement applies, the applicant must request the specified department or other body (in writing) to indicate whether (and if so why) it has any objections to the proposed name.

(3) Where a request under this section is made in connection with an application for the registration of a company under this Act, the application must–

(a) include a statement that a request under this section has been made, and

(b) be accompanied by a copy of any response received.

(4) Where a request under this section is made in connection with a change in a company´s name, the notice of the change sent to the registrar must be accompanied by–

(a) a statement by a director or secretary of the company that a request under this section has been made, and

(b) a copy of any response received.

(5) In this section "specified" means specified in the regulations.

Permitted characters etc

57 Permitted characters etc

(1) The Secretary of State may make provision by regulations–

(a) as to the letters or other characters, signs or symbols (including accents and other diacritical marks) and punctuation that may be used in the name of a company registered under this Act; and

(b) specifying a standard style or format for the name of a company for the purposes of registration.

(2) The regulations may prohibit the use of specified characters, signs or symbols when appearing in a specified position (in particular, at the beginning of a name).

(3) A company may not be registered under this Act by a name that consists of or includes anything that is not permitted in accordance with regulations under this section.

(4) Regulations under this section are subject to negative resolution procedure.

(5) In this section "specified" means specified in the regulations.

Chapter 2 Indications of company type or legal form

Required indications for limited companies

58 Public limited companies

(1) The name of a limited company that is a public company must end with "public limited company" or "p.l.c.".

(2) In the case of a Welsh company, its name may instead end with "cwmni cyfyngedig cyhoeddus" or "c.c.c.".

(3) This section does not apply to community interest companies (but see section 33(3) and (4) of the Companies (Audit, Investigations and Community Enterprise) Act 2004 (c. 27)).

59 Private limited companies

(1) The name of a limited company that is a private company must end with "limited" or "ltd.".

(2) In the case of a Welsh company, its name may instead end with "cyfyngedig" or "cyf.".

(3) Certain companies are exempt from this requirement (see section 60).

(4) This section does not apply to community interest companies (but see section 33(1) and (2) of the Companies (Audit, Investigations and Community Enterprise) Act 2004).

60 Exemption from requirement as to use of "limited"

(1) A private company is exempt from section 59 (requirement to have name ending with "limited" or permitted alternative) if–

(a) it is a charity,

(b) it is exempted from the requirement of that section by regulations made by the Secretary of State, or

(c) it meets the conditions specified in–

(2) The registrar may refuse to register a private limited company by a name that does not include the word "limited" (or a permitted alternative) unless a statement has been delivered to him that the company meets the conditions for exemption.

(3) The registrar may accept the statement as sufficient evidence of the matters stated in it.

(4) Regulations under this section are subject to negative resolution procedure.

61 Continuation of existing exemption: companies limited by shares

(1) This section applies to a private company limited by shares–

(a) that on 25th February 1982–

(i) was registered in Great Britain, and

(ii) had a name that, by virtue of a licence under section 19 of the Companies Act 1948 (c. 38) (or corresponding earlier legislation), did not include the word "limited" or any of the permitted alternatives, or

(b) that on 30th June 1983–

(i) was registered in Northern Ireland, and

(ii) had a name that, by virtue of a licence under section 19 of the Companies Act (Northern Ireland) 1960 (c. 22 (N.I.)) (or corresponding earlier legislation), did not include the word "limited" or any of the permitted alternatives.

(2) A company to which this section applies is exempt from section 59 (requirement to have name ending with "limited" or permitted alternative) so long as–

(a) it continues to meet the following two conditions, and

(b) it does not change its name.

(3) The first condition is that the objects of the company are the promotion of commerce, art, science, education, religion, charity or any profession, and anything incidental or conducive to any of those objects.

(4) The second condition is that the company´s articles–

(a) require its income to be applied in promoting its objects,

(b) prohibit the payment of dividends, or any return of capital, to its members, and

(c) require all the assets that would otherwise be available to its members generally to be transferred on its winding up either–

(i) to another body with objects similar to its own, or

(ii) to another body the objects of which are the promotion of charity and anything incidental or conducive thereto,

(whether or not the body is a member of the company).

62 Continuation of existing exemption: companies limited by guarantee

(1) A private company limited by guarantee that immediately before the commencement of this Part–

(a) was exempt by virtue of section 30 of the Companies Act 1985 (c. 6) or Article 40 of the Companies (Northern Ireland) Order 1986 (S.I. 1986/1032 (N.I. 6)) from the requirement to have a name including the word "limited" or a permitted alternative, and

(b) had a name that did not include the word "limited" or any of the permitted alternatives,

is exempt from section 59 (requirement to have name ending with "limited" or permitted alternative) so long as it continues to meet the following two conditions and does not change its name.

(2) The first condition is that the objects of the company are the promotion of commerce, art, science, education, religion, charity or any profession, and anything incidental or conducive to any of those objects.

(3) The second condition is that the company´s articles–

(a) require its income to be applied in promoting its objects,

(b) prohibit the payment of dividends to its members, and

(c) require all the assets that would otherwise be available to its members generally to be transferred on its winding up either–

(i) to another body with objects similar to its own, or

(ii) to another body the objects of which are the promotion of charity and anything incidental or conducive thereto,

(whether or not the body is a member of the company).

63 Exempt company: restriction on amendment of articles

(1) A private company–

(a) that is exempt under section 61 or 62 from the requirement to use "limited" (or a permitted alternative) as part of its name, and

(b) whose name does not include "limited" or any of the permitted alternatives,

must not amend its articles so that it ceases to comply with the conditions for exemption under that section.

(2) If subsection (1) above is contravened an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

For this purpose a shadow director is treated as an officer of the company.

(3) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 5 on the standard scale.

(4) Where immediately before the commencement of this section–

(a) a company was exempt by virtue of section 30 of the Companies Act 1985 (c. 6) or Article 40 of the Companies (Northern Ireland) Order 1986 (S.I. 1986/1032 (N.I. 6)) from the requirement to have a name including the word "limited" (or a permitted alternative), and

(b) the company´s memorandum or articles contained provision preventing an alteration of them without the approval of–

(i) the Board of Trade or a Northern Ireland department (or any other department or Minister), or

(ii) the Charity Commission,

that provision, and any condition of any such licence as is mentioned in section 61(1)(a)(ii) or (b)(ii) requiring such provision, shall cease to have effect.

This does not apply if, or to the extent that, the provision is required by or under any other enactment.

(5) It is hereby declared that any such provision as is mentioned in subsection (4)(b) formerly contained in a company´s memorandum was at all material times capable, with the appropriate approval, of being altered or removed under section 17 of the Companies Act 1985 or Article 28 of the Companies (Northern Ireland) Order 1986 (S.I. 1986/1032 (N.I. 6)) (or corresponding earlier enactments).

64 Power to direct change of name in case of company ceasing to be entitled to exemption

(1) If it appears to the Secretary of State that a company whose name does not include "limited" or any of the permitted alternatives–

(a) has ceased to be entitled to exemption under section 60(1)(a) or (b), or

(b) in the case of a company within section 61 or 62 (which impose conditions as to the objects and articles of the company)–

(i) has carried on any business other than the promotion of any of the objects mentioned in subsection (3) of section 61 or, as the case may be, subsection (2) of section 62, or

(ii) has acted inconsistently with the provision required by subsection (4)(a) or (b) of section 61 or, as the case may be, subsection (3)(a) or (b) of section 62,

the Secretary of State may direct the company to change its name so that it ends with "limited" or one of the permitted alternatives.

(2) The direction must be in writing and must specify the period within which the company is to change its name.

(3) A change of name in order to comply with a direction under this section may be made by resolution of the directors.

This is without prejudice to any other method of changing the company´s name.

(4) Where a resolution of the directors is passed in accordance with subsection (3), the company must give notice to the registrar of the change.

Sections 80 and 81 apply as regards the registration and effect of the change.

(5) If the company fails to comply with a direction under this section an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

(6) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 5 on the standard scale.

(7) A company that has been directed to change its name under this section may not, without the approval of the Secretary of State, subsequently change its name so that it does not include "limited" or one of the permitted alternatives.

This does not apply to a change of name on re-registration or on conversion to a community interest company.

Inappropriate use of indications of company type or legal form

65 Inappropriate use of indications of company type or legal form

(1) The Secretary of State may make provision by regulations prohibiting the use in a company name of specified words, expressions or other indications –

(a) that are associated with a particular type of company or form of organisation, or

(b) that are similar to words, expressions or other indications associated with a particular type of company or form of organisation.

(2) The regulations may prohibit the use of words, expressions or other indications–

(a) in a specified part, or otherwise than in a specified part, of a company´s name;

(b) in conjunction with, or otherwise than in conjunction with, such other words, expressions or indications as may be specified.

(3) A company must not be registered under this Act by a name that consists of or includes anything prohibited by regulations under this section.

(4) In this section "specified" means specified in the regulations.

(5) Regulations under this section are subject to negative resolution procedure.

Chapter 3 Similarity to other names

Similarity to other name on registrar´s index

66 Name not to be the same as another in the index

(1) A company must not be registered under this Act by a name that is the same as another name appearing in the registrar´s index of company names.

(2) The Secretary of State may make provision by regulations supplementing this section.

(3) The regulations may make provision–

(a) as to matters that are to be disregarded, and

(b) as to words, expressions, signs or symbols that are, or are not, to be regarded as the same,

for the purposes of this section.

(4) The regulations may provide–

(a) that registration by a name that would otherwise be prohibited under this section is permitted–

(i) in specified circumstances, or

(ii) with specified consent, and

(b) that if those circumstances obtain or that consent is given at the time a company is registered by a name, a subsequent change of circumstances or withdrawal of consent does not affect the registration.

(5) Regulations under this section are subject to negative resolution procedure.

(6) In this section "specified" means specified in the regulations.

67 Power to direct change of name in case of similarity to existing name

(1) The Secretary of State may direct a company to change its name if it has been registered in a name that is the same as or, in the opinion of the Secretary of State, too like–

(a) a name appearing at the time of the registration in the registrar´s index of company names, or

(b) a name that should have appeared in that index at that time.

(2) The Secretary of State may make provision by regulations supplementing this section.

(3) The regulations may make provision–

(a) as to matters that are to be disregarded, and

(b) as to words, expressions, signs or symbols that are, or are not, to be regarded as the same,

for the purposes of this section.

(4) The regulations may provide–

(a) that no direction is to be given under this section in respect of a name–

(i) in specified circumstances, or

(ii) if specified consent is given, and

(b) that a subsequent change of circumstances or withdrawal of consent does not give rise to grounds for a direction under this section.

(5) Regulations under this section are subject to negative resolution procedure.

(6) In this section "specified" means specified in the regulations.

68 Direction to change name: supplementary provisions

(1) The following provisions have effect in relation to a direction under section 67 (power to direct change of name in case of similarity to existing name).

(2) Any such direction–

(a) must be given within twelve months of the company´s registration by the name in question, and

(b) must specify the period within which the company is to change its name.

(3) The Secretary of State may by a further direction extend that period.

Any such direction must be given before the end of the period for the time being specified.

(4) A direction under section 67 or this section must be in writing.

(5) If a company fails to comply with the direction, an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

For this purpose a shadow director is treated as an officer of the company.

(6) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 3 on the standard scale.

Similarity to other name in which person has goodwill

69 Objection to company´s registered name

(1) A person ("the applicant") may object to a company´s registered name on the ground–

(a) that it is the same as a name associated with the applicant in which he has goodwill, or

(b) that it is sufficiently similar to such a name that its use in the United Kingdom would be likely to mislead by suggesting a connection between the company and the applicant.

(2) The objection must be made by application to a company names adjudicator (see section 70).

(3) The company concerned shall be the primary respondent to the application.

Any of its members or directors may be joined as respondents.

(4) If the ground specified in subsection (1)(a) or (b) is established, it is for the respondents to show–

(a) that the name was registered before the commencement of the activities on which the applicant relies to show goodwill; or

(b) that the company–

(i) is operating under the name, or

(ii) is proposing to do so and has incurred substantial start-up costs in preparation, or

(iii) was formerly operating under the name and is now dormant;or

(c) that the name was registered in the ordinary course of a company formation business and the company is available for sale to the applicant on the standard terms of that business; or

(d) that the name was adopted in good faith; or

(e) that the interests of the applicant are not adversely affected to any significant extent.

If none of those is shown, the objection shall be upheld.

(5) If the facts mentioned in subsection (4)(a), (b) or (c) are established, the objection shall nevertheless be upheld if the applicant shows that the main purpose of the respondents (or any of them) in registering the name was to obtain money (or other consideration) from the applicant or prevent him from registering the name.

(6) If the objection is not upheld under subsection (4) or (5), it shall be dismissed.

(7) In this section "goodwill" includes reputation of any description.

70 Company names adjudicators

(1) The Secretary of State shall appoint persons to be company names adjudicators.

(2) The persons appointed must have such legal or other experience as, in the Secretary of State´s opinion, makes them suitable for appointment.

(3) An adjudicator–

(a) holds office in accordance with the terms of his appointment,

(b) is eligible for re-appointment when his term of office ends,

(c) may resign at any time by notice in writing given to the Secretary of State, and

(d) may be dismissed by the Secretary of State on the ground of incapacity or misconduct.

(4) One of the adjudicators shall be appointed Chief Adjudicator.

He shall perform such functions as the Secretary of State may assign to him.

(5) The other adjudicators shall undertake such duties as the Chief Adjudicator may determine.

(6) The Secretary of State may–

(a) appoint staff for the adjudicators;

(b) pay remuneration and expenses to the adjudicators and their staff;

(c) defray other costs arising in relation to the performance by the adjudicators of their functions;

(d) compensate persons for ceasing to be adjudicators.

71 Procedural rules

(1) The Secretary of State may make rules about proceedings before a company names adjudicator.

(2) The rules may, in particular, make provision–

(a) as to how an application is to be made and the form and content of an application or other documents;

(b) for fees to be charged;

(c) about the service of documents and the consequences of failure to serve them;

(d) as to the form and manner in which evidence is to be given;

(e) for circumstances in which hearings are required and those in which they are not;

(f) for cases to be heard by more than one adjudicator;

(g) setting time limits for anything required to be done in connection with the proceedings (and allowing for such limits to be extended, even if they have expired);

(h) enabling the adjudicator to strike out an application, or any defence, in whole or in part–

(i) on the ground that it is vexatious, has no reasonable prospect of success or is otherwise misconceived, or

(ii) for failure to comply with the requirements of the rules;

(i) conferring power to order security for costs (in Scotland, caution for expenses);

(j) as to how far proceedings are to be held in public;

(k) requiring one party to bear the costs (in Scotland, expenses) of another and as to the taxing (or settling) the amount of such costs (or expenses).

(3) The rules may confer on the Chief Adjudicator power to determine any matter that could be the subject of provision in the rules.

(4) Rules under this section shall be made by statutory instrument which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.

72 Decision of adjudicator to be made available to public

(1) A company names adjudicator must, within 90 days of determining an application under section 69, make his decision and his reasons for it available to the public.

(2) He may do so by means of a website or by such other means as appear to him to be appropriate.

73 Order requiring name to be changed

(1) If an application under section 69 is upheld, the adjudicator shall make an order–

(a) requiring the respondent company to change its name to one that is not an offending name, and

(b) requiring all the respondents–

(i) to take all such steps as are within their power to make, or facilitate the making, of that change, and

(ii) not to cause or permit any steps to be taken calculated to result in another company being registered with a name that is an offending name.

(2) An "offending name" means a name that, by reason of its similarity to the name associated with the applicant in which he claims goodwill, would be likely–

(a) to be the subject of a direction under section 67 (power of Secretary of State to direct change of name), or

(b) to give rise to a further application under section 69.

(3) The order must specify a date by which the respondent company´s name is to be changed and may be enforced–

(a) in England and Wales or Northern Ireland, in the same way as an order of the High Court;

(b) in Scotland, in the same way as a decree of the Court of Session.

(4) If the respondent company´s name is not changed in accordance with the order by the specified date, the adjudicator may determine a new name for the company.

(5) If the adjudicator determines a new name for the respondent company he must give notice of his determination–

(a) to the applicant,

(b) to the respondents, and

(c) to the registrar.

(6) For the purposes of this section a company´s name is changed when the change takes effect in accordance with section 81(1) (on the issue of the new certification of incorporation).

74 Appeal from adjudicator´s decision

(1) An appeal lies to the court from any decision of a company names adjudicator to uphold or dismiss an application under section 69.

(2) Notice of appeal against a decision upholding an application must be given before the date specified in the adjudicator´s order by which the respondent company´s name is to be changed.

(3) If notice of appeal is given against a decision upholding an application, the effect of the adjudicator´s order is suspended.

(4) If on appeal the court–

(a) affirms the decision of the adjudicator to uphold the application, or

(b) reverses the decision of the adjudicator to dismiss the application,

the court may (as the case may require) specify the date by which the adjudicator´s order is to be complied with, remit the matter to the adjudicator or make any order or determination that the adjudicator might have made.

(5) If the court determines a new name for the company it must give notice of the determination–

(a) to the parties to the appeal, and

(b) to the registrar.

Chapter 4 Other powers of the Secretary of State

75 Provision of misleading information etc

(1) If it appears to the Secretary of State–

(a) that misleading information has been given for the purposes of a company´s registration by a particular name, or

(b) that an undertaking or assurance has been given for that purpose and has not been fulfilled,

the Secretary of State may direct the company to change its name.

(2) Any such direction–

(a) must be given within five years of the company´s registration by that name, and

(b) must specify the period within which the company is to change its name.

(3) The Secretary of State may by a further direction extend the period within which the company is to change its name.

Any such direction must be given before the end of the period for the time being specified.

(4) A direction under this section must be in writing.

(5) If a company fails to comply with a direction under this section, an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

For this purpose a shadow director is treated as an officer of the company.

(6) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 3 on the standard scale.

76 Misleading indication of activities

(1) If in the opinion of the Secretary of State the name by which a company is registered gives so misleading an indication of the nature of its activities as to be likely to cause harm to the public, the Secretary of State may direct the company to change its name.

(2) The direction must be in writing.

(3) The direction must be complied with within a period of six weeks from the date of the direction or such longer period as the Secretary of State may think fit to allow.

This does not apply if an application is duly made to the court under the following provisions.

(4) The company may apply to the court to set the direction aside.

The application must be made within the period of three weeks from the date of the direction.

(5) The court may set the direction aside or confirm it.

If the direction is confirmed, the court shall specify the period within which the direction is to be complied with.

(6) If a company fails to comply with a direction under this section, an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

For this purpose a shadow director is treated as an officer of the company.

(7) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 3 on the standard scale.

Chapter 5 Change of name

77 Change of name

(1) A company may change its name–

(a) by special resolution (see section 78), or

(b) by other means provided for by the company´s articles (see section 79).

(2) The name of a company may also be changed–

(a) by resolution of the directors acting under section 64 (change of name to comply with direction of Secretary of State under that section);

(b) on the determination of a new name by a company names adjudicator under section 73 (powers of adjudicator on upholding objection to company name);

(c) on the determination of a new name by the court under section 74 (appeal against decision of company names adjudicator);

(d) under section 1033 (company´s name on restoration to the register).

78 Change of name by special resolution

(1) Where a change of name has been agreed to by a company by special resolution, the company must give notice to the registrar.

This is in addition to the obligation to forward a copy of the resolution to the registrar.

(2) Where a change of name by special resolution is conditional on the occurrence of an event, the notice given to the registrar of the change must–

(a) specify that the change is conditional, and

(b) state whether the event has occurred.

(3) If the notice states that the event has not occurred–

(a) the registrar is not required to act under section 80 (registration and issue of new certificate of incorporation) until further notice,

(b) when the event occurs, the company must give notice to the registrar stating that it has occurred, and

(c) the registrar may rely on the statement as sufficient evidence of the matters stated in it.

79 Change of name by means provided for in company´s articles

(1) Where a change of a company´s name has been made by other means provided for by its articles–

(a) the company must give notice to the registrar, and

(b) the notice must be accompanied by a statement that the change of name has been made by means provided for by the company´s articles.

(2) The registrar may rely on the statement as sufficient evidence of the matters stated in it.

80 Change of name: registration and issue of new certificate of incorporation

(1) This section applies where the registrar receives notice of a change of a company´s name.

(2) If the registrar is satisfied–

(a) that the new name complies with the requirements of this Part, and

(b) that the requirements of the Companies Acts, and any relevant requirements of the company´s articles, with respect to a change of name are complied with,

the registrar must enter the new name on the register in place of the former name.

(3) On the registration of the new name, the registrar must issue a certificate of incorporation altered to meet the circumstances of the case.

81 Change of name: effect

(1) A change of a company´s name has effect from the date on which the new certificate of incorporation is issued.

(2) The change does not affect any rights or obligations of the company or render defective any legal proceedings by or against it.

(3) Any legal proceedings that might have been continued or commenced against it by its former name may be continued or commenced against it by its new name.

Chapter 6 Trading disclosures

82 Requirement to disclose company name etc

(1) The Secretary of State may by regulations make provision requiring companies–

(a) to display specified information in specified locations,

(b) to state specified information in specified descriptions of document or communication, and

(c) to provide specified information on request to those they deal with in the course of their business.

(2) The regulations–

(a) must in every case require disclosure of the name of the company, and

(b) may make provision as to the manner in which any specified information is to be displayed, stated or provided.

(3) The regulations may provide that, for the purposes of any requirement to disclose a company´s name, any variation between a word or words required to be part of the name and a permitted abbreviation of that word or those words (or vice versa) shall be disregarded.

(4) In this section "specified" means specified in the regulations.

(5) Regulations under this section are subject to affirmative resolution procedure.

83 Civil consequences of failure to make required disclosure

(1) This section applies to any legal proceedings brought by a company to which section 82 applies (requirement to disclose company name etc) to enforce a right arising out of a contract made in the course of a business in respect of which the company was, at the time the contract was made, in breach of regulations under that section.

(2) The proceedings shall be dismissed if the defendant (in Scotland, the defender) to the proceedings shows–

(a) that he has a claim against the claimant (pursuer) arising out of the contract that he has been unable to pursue by reason of the latter´s breach of the regulations, or

(b) that he has suffered some financial loss in connection with the contract by reason of the claimant´s (pursuer's) breach of the regulations,

unless the court before which the proceedings are brought is satisfied that it is just and equitable to permit the proceedings to continue.

(3) This section does not affect the right of any person to enforce such rights as he may have against another person in any proceedings brought by that person.

84 Criminal consequences of failure to make required disclosures

(1) Regulations under section 82 may provide–

(a) that where a company fails, without reasonable excuse, to comply with any specified requirement of regulations under that section an offence is committed by–

(i) the company, and

(ii) every officer of the company who is in default;

(b) that a person guilty of such an offence is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 3 on the standard scale.

(2) The regulations may provide that, for the purposes of any provision made under subsection (1), a shadow director of the company is to be treated as an officer of the company.

(3) In subsection (1)(a) "specified" means specified in the regulations.

85 Minor variations in form of name to be left out of account

(1) For the purposes of this Chapter, in considering a company´s name no account is to be taken of–

(a) whether upper or lower case characters (or a combination of the two) are used,

(b) whether diacritical marks or punctuation are present or absent,

(c) whether the name is in the same format or style as is specified under section 57(1)(b) for the purposes of registration,

provided there is no real likelihood of names differing only in those respects being taken to be different names.

(2) This does not affect the operation of regulations under section 57(1)(a) permitting only specified characters, diacritical marks or punctuation.

Part 6 A company´s registered office

General

86 A company´s registered office

A company must at all times have a registered office to which all communications and notices may be addressed.

87 Change of address of registered office

(1) A company may change the address of its registered office by giving notice to the registrar.

(2) The change takes effect upon the notice being registered by the registrar, but until the end of the period of 14 days beginning with the date on which it is registered a person may validly serve any document on the company at the address previously registered.

(3) For the purposes of any duty of a company–

(a) to keep available for inspection at its registered office any register, index or other document, or

(b) to mention the address of its registered office in any document,

a company that has given notice to the registrar of a change in the address of its registered office may act on the change as from such date, not more than 14 days after the notice is given, as it may determine.

(4) Where a company unavoidably ceases to perform at its registered office any such duty as is mentioned in subsection (3)(a) in circumstances in which it was not practicable to give prior notice to the registrar of a change in the address of its registered office, but–

(a) resumes performance of that duty at other premises as soon as practicable, and

(b) gives notice accordingly to the registrar of a change in the situation of its registered office within 14 days of doing so,

it is not to be treated as having failed to comply with that duty.

Welsh companies

88 Welsh companies

(1) In the Companies Acts a "Welsh company" means a company as to which it is stated in the register that its registered office is to be situated in Wales.

(2) A company–

(a) whose registered office is in Wales, and

(b) as to which it is stated in the register that its registered office is to be situated in England and Wales,

may by special resolution require the register to be amended so that it states that the company´s registered office is to be situated in Wales.

(3) A company–

(a) whose registered office is in Wales, and

(b) as to which it is stated in the register that its registered office is to be situated in Wales,

may by special resolution require the register to be amended so that it states that the company´s registered office is to be situated in England and Wales.

(4) Where a company passes a resolution under this section it must give notice to the registrar, who shall–

(a) amend the register accordingly, and

(b) issue a new certificate of incorporation altered to meet the circumstances of the case.

Part 7 Re-registration as a means of altering a company´s status

Introductory

89 Alteration of status by re-registration

A company may by re-registration under this Part alter its status–

(a) from a private company to a public company (see sections 90 to 96);

(b) from a public company to a private company (see sections 97 to 101);

(c) from a private limited company to an unlimited company (see sections 102 to 104);

(d) from an unlimited private company to a limited company (see sections 105 to 108);

(e) from a public company to an unlimited private company (see sections 109 to 111).

Private company becoming public

90 Re-registration of private company as public

(1) A private company (whether limited or unlimited) may be re-registered as a public company limited by shares if–

(a) a special resolution that it should be so re-registered is passed,

(b) the conditions specified below are met, and

(c) an application for re-registration is delivered to the registrar in accordance with section 94, together with–

(i) the other documents required by that section, and

(ii) a statement of compliance.

(2) The conditions are–

(a) that the company has a share capital;

(b) that the requirements of section 91 are met as regards its share capital;

(c) that the requirements of section 92 are met as regards its net assets;

(d) if section 93 applies (recent allotment of shares for non-cash consideration), that the requirements of that section are met; and

(e) that the company has not previously been re-registered as unlimited.

(3) The company must make such changes–

(a) in its name, and

(b) in its articles,

as are necessary in connection with its becoming a public company.

(4) If the company is unlimited it must also make such changes in its articles as are necessary in connection with its becoming a company limited by shares.

91 Requirements as to share capital

(1) The following requirements must be met at the time the special resolution is passed that the company should be re-registered as a public company–

(a) the nominal value of the company´s allotted share capital must be not less than the authorised minimum;

(b) each of the company´s allotted shares must be paid up at least as to one-quarter of the nominal value of that share and the whole of any premium on it;

(c) if any shares in the company or any premium on them have been fully or partly paid up by an undertaking given by any person that he or another should do work or perform services (whether for the company or any other person), the undertaking must have been performed or otherwise discharged;

(d) if shares have been allotted as fully or partly paid up as to their nominal value or any premium on them otherwise than in cash, and the consideration for the allotment consists of or includes an undertaking to the company (other than one to which paragraph (c) applies), then either–

(i) the undertaking must have been performed or otherwise discharged, or

(ii) there must be a contract between the company and some person pursuant to which the undertaking is to be performed within five years from the time the special resolution is passed.

(2) For the purpose of determining whether the requirements in subsection (1)(b), (c) and (d) are met, the following may be disregarded–

(a) shares allotted–

(i) before 22nd June 1982 in the case of a company then registered in Great Britain, or

(ii) before 31st December 1984 in the case of a company then registered in Northern Ireland;

(b) shares allotted in pursuance of an employees' share scheme by reason of which the company would, but for this subsection, be precluded under subsection (1)(b) (but not otherwise) from being re-registered as a public company.

(3) No more than one-tenth of the nominal value of the company´s allotted share capital is to be disregarded under subsection (2)(a).

For this purpose the allotted share capital is treated as not including shares disregarded under subsection (2)(b).

(4) Shares disregarded under subsection (2) are treated as not forming part of the allotted share capital for the purposes of subsection (1)(a).

(5) A company must not be re-registered as a public company if it appears to the registrar that–

(a) the company has resolved to reduce its share capital,

(b) the reduction–

(i) is made under section 626 (reduction in connection with redenomination of share capital),

(ii) is supported by a solvency statement in accordance with section 643, or

(iii) has been confirmed by an order of the court under section 648, and

(c) the effect of the reduction is, or will be, that the nominal value of the company´s allotted share capital is below the authorised minimum.

92 Requirements as to net assets

(1) A company applying to re-register as a public company must obtain–

(a) a balance sheet prepared as at a date not more than seven months before the date on which the application is delivered to the registrar,

(b) an unqualified report by the company´s auditor on that balance sheet, and

(c) a written statement by the company´s auditor that in his opinion at the balance sheet date the amount of the company´s net assets was not less than the aggregate of its called-up share capital and undistributable reserves.

(2) Between the balance sheet date and the date on which the application for re-registration is delivered to the registrar, there must be no change in the company´s financial position that results in the amount of its net assets becoming less than the aggregate of its called-up share capital and undistributable reserves.

(3) In subsection (1)(b) an "unqualified report" means–

(a) if the balance sheet was prepared for a financial year of the company, a report stating without material qualification the auditor´s opinion that the balance sheet has been properly prepared in accordance with the requirements of this Act;

(b) if the balance sheet was not prepared for a financial year of the company, a report stating without material qualification the auditor´s opinion that the balance sheet has been properly prepared in accordance with the provisions of this Act which would have applied if it had been prepared for a financial year of the company.

(4) For the purposes of an auditor´s report on a balance sheet that was not prepared for a financial year of the company, the provisions of this Act apply with such modifications as are necessary by reason of that fact.

(5) For the purposes of subsection (3) a qualification is material unless the auditor states in his report that the matter giving rise to the qualification is not material for the purpose of determining (by reference to the company´s balance sheet) whether at the balance sheet date the amount of the company´s net assets was not less than the aggregate of its called-up share capital and undistributable reserves.

(6) In this Part "net assets" and "undistributable reserves" have the same meaning as in section 831 (net asset restriction on distributions by public companies).

93 Recent allotment of shares for non-cash consideration

(1) This section applies where–

(a) shares are allotted by the company in the period between the date as at which the balance sheet required by section 92 is prepared and the passing of the resolution that the company should re-register as a public company, and

(b) the shares are allotted as fully or partly paid up as to their nominal value or any premium on them otherwise than in cash.

(2) The registrar shall not entertain an application by the company for re-registration as a public company unless–

(a) the requirements of section 593(1)(a) and (b) have been complied with (independent valuation of non-cash consideration; valuer´s report to company not more than six months before allotment), or

(b) the allotment is in connection with–

(i) a share exchange (see subsections (3) to (5) below), or

(ii) a proposed merger with another company (see subsection (6) below).

(3) An allotment is in connection with a share exchange if–

(a) the shares are allotted in connection with an arrangement under which the whole or part of the consideration for the shares allotted is provided by–

(i) the transfer to the company allotting the shares of shares (or shares of a particular class) in another company, or

(ii) the cancellation of shares (or shares of a particular class) in another company; and

(b) the allotment is open to all the holders of the shares of the other company in question (or, where the arrangement applies only to shares of a particular class, to all the holders of the company´s shares of that class) to take part in the arrangement in connection with which the shares are allotted.

(4) In determining whether a person is a holder of shares for the purposes of subsection (3), there shall be disregarded–

(a) shares held by, or by a nominee of, the company allotting the shares;

(b) shares held by, or by a nominee of–

(i) the holding company of the company allotting the shares,

(ii) a subsidiary of the company allotting the shares, or

(iii) a subsidiary of the holding company of the company allotting the shares.

(5) It is immaterial, for the purposes of deciding whether an allotment is in connection with a share exchange, whether or not the arrangement in connection with which the shares are allotted involves the issue to the company allotting the shares of shares (or shares of a particular class) in the other company.

(6) There is a proposed merger with another company if one of the companies concerned proposes to acquire all the assets and liabilities of the other in exchange for the issue of its shares or other securities to shareholders of the other (whether or not accompanied by a cash payment).

(7) For the purposes of this section–

(a) the consideration for an allotment does not include any amount standing to the credit of any of the company´s reserve accounts, or of its profit and loss account, that has been applied in paying up (to any extent) any of the shares allotted or any premium on those shares; and

(b) "arrangement" means any agreement, scheme or arrangement, (including an arrangement sanctioned in accordance with–

(i) Part 26 of this Act (arrangements and reconstructions), or

(ii) section 110 of the Insolvency Act 1986 (c. 45) or Article 96 of the Insolvency (Northern Ireland) Order 1989 (S.I. 1989/2405 (N.I. 19)) (liquidator in winding up accepting shares as consideration for sale of company´s property)).

94 Application and accompanying documents

(1) An application for re-registration as a public company must contain–

(a) a statement of the company´s proposed name on re-registration; and

(b) in the case of a company without a secretary, a statement of the company´s proposed secretary (see section 95).

(2) The application must be accompanied by–

(a) a copy of the special resolution that the company should re-register as a public company (unless a copy has already been forwarded to the registrar under Chapter 3 of Part 3);

(b) a copy of the company´s articles as proposed to be amended;

(c) a copy of the balance sheet and other documents referred to in section 92(1); and

(d) if section 93 applies (recent allotment of shares for non-cash consideration), a copy of the valuation report (if any) under subsection (2)(a) of that section.

(3) The statement of compliance required to be delivered together with the application is a statement that the requirements of this Part as to re-registration as a public company have been complied with.

(4) The registrar may accept the statement of compliance as sufficient evidence that the company is entitled to be re-registered as a public company.

95 Statement of proposed secretary

(1) The statement of the company´s proposed secretary must contain the required particulars of the person who is or the persons who are to be the secretary or joint secretaries of the company.

(2) The required particulars are the particulars that will be required to be stated in the company´s register of secretaries (see sections 277 to 279).

(3) The statement must also contain a consent by the person named as secretary, or each of the persons named as joint secretaries, to act in the relevant capacity.

If all the partners in a firm are to be joint secretaries, consent may be given by one partner on behalf of all of them.

96 Issue of certificate of incorporation on re-registration

(1) If on an application for re-registration as a public company the registrar is satisfied that the company is entitled to be so re-registered, the company shall be re-registered accordingly.

(2) The registrar must issue a certificate of incorporation altered to meet the circumstances of the case.

(3) The certificate must state that it is issued on re-registration and the date on which it is issued.

(4) On the issue of the certificate–

(a) the company by virtue of the issue of the certificate becomes a public company,

(b) the changes in the company´s name and articles take effect, and

(c) where the application contained a statement under section 95 (statement of proposed secretary), the person or persons named in the statement as secretary or joint secretary of the company are deemed to have been appointed to that office.

(5) The certificate is conclusive evidence that the requirements of this Act as to re-registration have been complied with.

Public company becoming private

97 Re-registration of public company as private limited company

(1) A public company may be re-registered as a private limited company if–

(a) a special resolution that it should be so re-registered is passed,

(b) the conditions specified below are met, and

(c) an application for re-registration is delivered to the registrar in accordance with section 100, together with–

(i) the other documents required by that section, and

(ii) a statement of compliance.

(2) The conditions are that–

(a) where no application under section 98 for cancellation of the resolution has been made–

(i) having regard to the number of members who consented to or voted in favour of the resolution, no such application may be made, or

(ii) the period within which such an application could be made has expired, or

(b) where such an application has been made–

(i) the application has been withdrawn, or

(ii) an order has been made confirming the resolution and a copy of that order has been delivered to the registrar.

(3) The company must make such changes–

(a) in its name, and

(b) in its articles,

as are necessary in connection with its becoming a private company limited by shares or, as the case may be, by guarantee.

98 Application to court to cancel resolution

(1) Where a special resolution by a public company to be re-registered as a private limited company has been passed, an application to the court for the cancellation of the resolution may be made–

(a) by the holders of not less in the aggregate than 5% in nominal value of the company´s issued share capital or any class of the company´s issued share capital (disregarding any shares held by the company as treasury shares);

(b) if the company is not limited by shares, by not less than 5% of its members; or

(c) by not less than 50 of the company´s members;

but not by a person who has consented to or voted in favour of the resolution.

(2) The application must be made within 28 days after the passing of the resolution and may be made on behalf of the persons entitled to make it by such one or more of their number as they may appoint for the purpose.

(3) On the hearing of the application the court shall make an order either cancelling or confirming the resolution.

(4) The court may–

(a) make that order on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit,

(b) if it thinks fit adjourn the proceedings in order that an arrangement may be made to the satisfaction of the court for the purchase of the interests of dissentient members, and

(c) give such directions, and make such orders, as it thinks expedient for facilitating or carrying into effect any such arrangement.

(5) The court´s order may, if the court thinks fit–

(a) provide for the purchase by the company of the shares of any of its members and for the reduction accordingly of the company´s capital; and

(b) make such alteration in the company´s articles as may be required in consequence of that provision.

(6) The court´s order may, if the court thinks fit, require the company not to make any, or any specified, amendments to its articles without the leave of the court.

99 Notice to registrar of court application or order

(1) On making an application under section 98 (application to court to cancel resolution) the applicants, or the person making the application on their behalf, must immediately give notice to the registrar.

This is without prejudice to any provision of rules of court as to service of notice of the application.

(2) On being served with notice of any such application, the company must immediately give notice to the registrar.

(3) Within 15 days of the making of the court´s order on the application, or such longer period as the court may at any time direct, the company must deliver to the registrar a copy of the order.

(4) If a company fails to comply with subsection (2) or (3) an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

(5) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 3 on the standard scale.

100 Application and accompanying documents

(1) An application for re-registration as a private limited company must contain a statement of the company´s proposed name on re-registration.

(2) The application must be accompanied by–

(a) a copy of the resolution that the company should re-register as a private limited company (unless a copy has already been forwarded to the registrar under Chapter 3 of Part 3); and

(b) a copy of the company´s articles as proposed to be amended.

(3) The statement of compliance required to be delivered together with the application is a statement that the requirements of this Part as to re-registration as a private limited company have been complied with.

(4) The registrar may accept the statement of compliance as sufficient evidence that the company is entitled to be re-registered as a private limited company.

101 Issue of certificate of incorporation on re-registration

(1) If on an application for re-registration as a private limited company the registrar is satisfied that the company is entitled to be so re-registered, the company shall be re-registered accordingly.

(2) The registrar must issue a certificate of incorporation altered to meet the circumstances of the case.

(3) The certificate must state that it is issued on re-registration and the date on which it is issued.

(4) On the issue of the certificate–

(a) the company by virtue of the issue of the certificate becomes a private limited company, and

(b) the changes in the company´s name and articles take effect.

(5) The certificate is conclusive evidence that the requirements of this Act as to re-registration have been complied with.

Private limited company becoming unlimited

102 Re-registration of private limited company as unlimited

(1) A private limited company may be re-registered as an unlimited company if–

(a) all the members of the company have assented to its being so re-registered,

(b) the condition specified below is met, and

(c) an application for re-registration is delivered to the registrar in accordance with section 103, together with–

(i) the other documents required by that section, and

(ii) a statement of compliance.

(2) The condition is that the company has not previously been re-registered as limited.

(3) The company must make such changes in its name and its articles–

(a) as are necessary in connection with its becoming an unlimited company; and

(b) if it is to have a share capital, as are necessary in connection with its becoming an unlimited company having a share capital.

(4) For the purposes of this section–

(a) a trustee in bankruptcy of a member of the company is entitled, to the exclusion of the member, to assent to the company´s becoming unlimited; and

(b) the personal representative of a deceased member of the company may assent on behalf of the deceased.

(5) In subsection (4)(a), "a trustee in bankruptcy of a member of the company" includes–

(a) a permanent trustee or an interim trustee (within the meaning of the Bankruptcy (Scotland) Act 1985 (c. 66)) on the sequestrated estate of a member of the company;

(b) a trustee under a protected trustee deed (within the meaning of the Bankruptcy (Scotland) Act 1985) granted by a member of the company.

103 Application and accompanying documents

(1) An application for re-registration as an unlimited company must contain a statement of the company´s proposed name on re-registration.

(2) The application must be accompanied by–

(a) the prescribed form of assent to the company´s being registered as an unlimited company, authenticated by or on behalf of all the members of the company;

(b) a copy of the company´s articles as proposed to be amended.

(3) The statement of compliance required to be delivered together with the application is a statement that the requirements of this Part as to re-registration as an unlimited company have been complied with.

(4) The statement must contain a statement by the directors of the company–

(a) that the persons by whom or on whose behalf the form of assent is authenticated constitute the whole membership of the company, and

(b) if any of the members have not authenticated that form themselves, that the directors have taken all reasonable steps to satisfy themselves that each person who authenticated it on behalf of a member was lawfully empowered to do so.

(5) The registrar may accept the statement of compliance as sufficient evidence that the company is entitled to be re-registered as an unlimited company.

104 Issue of certificate of incorporation on re-registration

(1) If on an application for re-registration of a private limited company as an unlimited company the registrar is satisfied that the company is entitled to be so re-registered, the company shall be re-registered accordingly.

(2) The registrar must issue a certificate of incorporation altered to meet the circumstances of the case.

(3) The certificate must state that it is issued on re-registration and the date on which it is issued.

(4) On the issue of the certificate–

(a) the company by virtue of the issue of the certificate becomes an unlimited company, and

(b) the changes in the company´s name and articles take effect.

(5) The certificate is conclusive evidence that the requirements of this Act as to re-registration have been complied with.

Unlimited private company becoming limited

105 Re-registration of unlimited company as limited

(1) An unlimited company may be re-registered as a private limited company if–

(a) a special resolution that it should be so re-registered is passed,

(b) the condition specified below is met, and

(c) an application for re-registration is delivered to the registrar in accordance with section 106, together with–

(i) the other documents required by that section, and

(ii) a statement of compliance.

(2) The condition is that the company has not previously been re-registered as unlimited.

(3) The special resolution must state whether the company is to be limited by shares or by guarantee.

(4) The company must make such changes–

(a) in its name, and

(b) in its articles,

as are necessary in connection with its becoming a company limited by shares or, as the case may be, by guarantee.

106 Application and accompanying documents

(1) An application for re-registration as a limited company must contain a statement of the company´s proposed name on re-registration.

(2) The application must be accompanied by–

(a) a copy of the resolution that the company should re-register as a private limited company (unless a copy has already been forwarded to the registrar under Chapter 3 of Part 3);

(b) if the company is to be limited by guarantee, a statement of guarantee;

(c) a copy of the company´s articles as proposed to be amended.

(3) The statement of guarantee required to be delivered in the case of a company that is to be limited by guarantee must state that each member undertakes that, if the company is wound up while he is a member, or within one year after he ceases to be a member, he will contribute to the assets of the company such amount as may be required for–

(a) payment of the debts and liabilities of the company contracted before he ceases to be a member,

(b) payment of the costs, charges and expenses of winding up, and

(c) adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves,

not exceeding a specified amount.

(4) The statement of compliance required to be delivered together with the application is a statement that the requirements of this Part as to re-registration as a limited company have been complied with.

(5) The registrar may accept the statement of compliance as sufficient evidence that the company is entitled to be re-registered as a limited company.

107 Issue of certificate of incorporation on re-registration

(1) If on an application for re-registration of an unlimited company as a limited company the registrar is satisfied that the company is entitled to be so re-registered, the company shall be re-registered accordingly.

(2) The registrar must issue a certificate of incorporation altered to meet the circumstances of the case.

(3) The certificate must state that it is issued on re-registration and the date on which it is so issued.

(4) On the issue of the certificate–

(a) the company by virtue of the issue of the certificate becomes a limited company, and

(b) the changes in the company´s name and articles take effect.

(5) The certificate is conclusive evidence that the requirements of this Act as to re-registration have been complied with.

108 Statement of capital required where company already has share capital

(1) A company which on re-registration under section 107 already has allotted share capital must within 15 days after the re-registration deliver a statement of capital to the registrar.

(2) This does not apply if the information which would be included in the statement has already been sent to the registrar in–

(a) a statement of capital and initial shareholdings (see section 10), or

(b) a statement of capital contained in an annual return (see section 856(2)).

(3) The statement of capital must state with respect to the company´s share capital on re-registration–

(a) the total number of shares of the company,

(b) the aggregate nominal value of those shares,

(c) for each class of shares–

(i) prescribed particulars of the rights attached to the shares,

(ii) the total number of shares of that class, and

(iii) the aggregate nominal value of shares of that class, and

(d) the amount paid up and the amount (if any) unpaid on each share (whether on account of the nominal value of the share or by way of premium).

(4) If default is made in complying with this section, an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

(5) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 3 on the standard scale.

Public company becoming private and unlimited

109 Re-registration of public company as private and unlimited

(1) A public company limited by shares may be re-registered as an unlimited private company with a share capital if–

(a) all the members of the company have assented to its being so re-registered,

(b) the condition specified below is met, and

(c) an application for re-registration is delivered to the registrar in accordance with section 110, together with–

(i) the other documents required by that section, and

(ii) a statement of compliance.

(2) The condition is that the company has not previously been re-registered–

(a) as limited, or

(b) as unlimited.

(3) The company must make such changes–

(a) in its name, and

(b) in its articles,

as are necessary in connection with its becoming an unlimited private company.

(4) For the purposes of this section–

(a) a trustee in bankruptcy of a member of the company is entitled, to the exclusion of the member, to assent to the company´s re-registration; and

(b) the personal representative of a deceased member of the company may assent on behalf of the deceased.

(5) In subsection (4)(a), "a trustee in bankruptcy of a member of the company" includes–

(a) a permanent trustee or an interim trustee (within the meaning of the Bankruptcy (Scotland) Act 1985 (c. 66)) on the sequestrated estate of a member of the company;

(b) a trustee under a protected trustee deed (within the meaning of the Bankruptcy (Scotland) Act 1985) granted by a member of the company.

110 Application and accompanying documents

(1) An application for re-registration of a public company as an unlimited private company must contain a statement of the company´s proposed name on re-registration.

(2) The application must be accompanied by–

(a) the prescribed form of assent to the company´s being registered as an unlimited company, authenticated by or on behalf of all the members of the company, and

(b) a copy of the company´s articles as proposed to be amended.

(3) The statement of compliance required to be delivered together with the application is a statement that the requirements of this Part as to re-registration as an unlimited private company have been complied with.

(4) The statement must contain a statement by the directors of the company–

(a) that the persons by whom or on whose behalf the form of assent is authenticated constitute the whole membership of the company, and

(b) if any of the members have not authenticated that form themselves, that the directors have taken all reasonable steps to satisfy themselves that each person who authenticated it on behalf of a member was lawfully empowered to do so.

(5) The registrar may accept the statement of compliance as sufficient evidence that the company is entitled to be re-registered as an unlimited private company.

111 Issue of certificate of incorporation on re-registration

(1) If on an application for re-registration of a public company as an unlimited private company the registrar is satisfied that the company is entitled to be so re-registered, the company shall be re-registered accordingly.

(2) The registrar must issue a certificate of incorporation altered to meet the circumstances of the case.

(3) The certificate must state that it is issued on re-registration and the date on which it is so issued.

(4) On the issue of the certificate–

(a) the company by virtue of the issue of the certificate becomes an unlimited private company, and

(b) the changes in the company´s name and articles take effect.

(5) The certificate is conclusive evidence that the requirements of this Act as to re-registration have been complied with.

Part 8 A company´s members

Chapter 1 The members of a company

112 The members of a company

(1) The subscribers of a company´s memorandum are deemed to have agreed to become members of the company, and on its registration become members and must be entered as such in its register of members.

(2) Every other person who agrees to become a member of a company, and whose name is entered in its register of members, is a member of the company.

Chapter 2 Register of members

General

113 Register of members

(1) Every company must keep a register of its members.

(2) There must be entered in the register–

(a) the names and addresses of the members,

(b) the date on which each person was registered as a member, and

(c) the date at which any person ceased to be a member.

(3) In the case of a company having a share capital, there must be entered in the register, with the names and addresses of the members, a statement of–

(a) the shares held by each member, distinguishing each share–

(i) by its number (so long as the share has a number), and

(ii) where the company has more than one class of issued shares, by its class, and

(b) the amount paid or agreed to be considered as paid on the shares of each member.

(4) If the company has converted any of its shares into stock, and given notice of the conversion to the registrar, the register of members must show the amount and class of stock held by each member instead of the amount of shares and the particulars relating to shares specified above.

(5) In the case of joint holders of shares or stock in a company, the company´s register of members must state the names of each joint holder.

In other respects joint holders are regarded for the purposes of this Chapter as a single member (so that the register must show a single address).

(6) In the case of a company that does not have a share capital but has more than one class of members, there must be entered in the register, with the names and addresses of the members, a statement of the class to which each member belongs.

(7) If a company makes default in complying with this section an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

(8) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 3 on the standard scale.

114 Register to be kept available for inspection

(1) A company´s register of members must be kept available for inspection–

(a) at its registered office, or

(b) at a place specified in regulations under section 1136.

(2) A company must give notice to the registrar of the place where its register of members is kept available for inspection and of any change in that place.

(3) No such notice is required if the register has, at all times since it came into existence (or, in the case of a register in existence on the relevant date, at all times since then) been kept available for inspection at the company´s registered office.

(4) The relevant date for the purposes of subsection (3) is–

(a) 1st July 1948 in the case of a company registered in Great Britain, and

(b) 1st April 1961 in the case of a company registered in Northern Ireland.

(5) If a company makes default for 14 days in complying with subsection (2), an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

(6) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 3 on the standard scale.

115 Index of members

(1) Every company having more than 50 members must keep an index of the names of the members of the company, unless the register of members is in such a form as to constitute in itself an index.

(2) The company must make any necessary alteration in the index within 14 days after the date on which any alteration is made in the register of members.

(3) The index must contain, in respect of each member, a sufficient indication to enable the account of that member in the register to be readily found.

(4) The index must be at all times kept available for inspection at the same place as the register of members.

(5) If default is made in complying with this section, an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

(6) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 3 on the standard scale.

116 Rights to inspect and require copies

(1) The register and the index of members' names must be open to the inspection–

(a) of any member of the company without charge, and

(b) of any other person on payment of such fee as may be prescribed.

(2) Any person may require a copy of a company´s register of members, or of any part of it, on payment of such fee as may be prescribed.

(3) A person seeking to exercise either of the rights conferred by this section must make a request to the company to that effect.

(4) The request must contain the following information–

(a) in the case of an individual, his name and address;

(b) in the case of an organisation, the name and address of an individual responsible for making the request on behalf of the organisation;

(c) the purpose for which the information is to be used; and

(d) whether the information will be disclosed to any other person, and if so–

(i) where that person is an individual, his name and address,

(ii) where that person is an organisation, the name and address of an individual responsible for receiving the information on its behalf, and

(iii) the purpose for which the information is to be used by that person.

117 Register of members: response to request for inspection or copy

(1) Where a company receives a request under section 116 (register of members: right to inspect and require copy), it must within five working days either–

(a) comply with the request, or

(b) apply to the court.

(2) If it applies to the court it must notify the person making the request.

(3) If on an application under this section the court is satisfied that the inspection or copy is not sought for a proper purpose–

(a) it shall direct the company not to comply with the request, and

(b) it may further order that the company´s costs (in Scotland, expenses) on the application be paid in whole or in part by the person who made the request, even if he is not a party to the application.

(4) If the court makes such a direction and it appears to the court that the company is or may be subject to other requests made for a similar purpose (whether made by the same person or different persons), it may direct that the company is not to comply with any such request.

The order must contain such provision as appears to the court appropriate to identify the requests to which it applies.

(5) If on an application under this section the court does not direct the company not to comply with the request, the company must comply with the request immediately upon the court giving its decision or, as the case may be, the proceedings being discontinued.

118 Register of members: refusal of inspection or default in providing copy

(1) If an inspection required under section 116 (register of members: right to inspect and require copy) is refused or default is made in providing a copy required under that section, otherwise than in accordance with an order of the court, an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

(2) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 3 on the standard scale.

(3) In the case of any such refusal or default the court may by order compel an immediate inspection or, as the case may be, direct that the copy required be sent to the person requesting it.

119 Register of members: offences in connection with request for or disclosure of information

(1) It is an offence for a person knowingly or recklessly to make in a request under section 116 (register of members: right to inspect or require copy) a statement that is misleading, false or deceptive in a material particular.

(2) It is an offence for a person in possession of information obtained by exercise of either of the rights conferred by that section–

(a) to do anything that results in the information being disclosed to another person, or

(b) to fail to do anything with the result that the information is disclosed to another person,

knowing, or having reason to suspect, that person may use the information for a purpose that is not a proper purpose.

(3) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable–

(a) on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or a fine (or both);

(b) on summary conviction–

(i) in England and Wales, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twelve months or to a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum (or both);

(ii) in Scotland or Northern Ireland, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months, or to a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum (or both).

120 Information as to state of register and index

(1) When a person inspects the register, or the company provides him with a copy of the register or any part of it, the company must inform him of the most recent date (if any) on which alterations were made to the register and there were no further alterations to be made.

(2) When a person inspects the index of members' names, the company must inform him whether there is any alteration to the register that is not reflected in the index.

(3) If a company fails to provide the information required under subsection (1) or (2), an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

(4) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

121 Removal of entries relating to former members

An entry relating to a former member of the company may be removed from the register after the expiration of ten years from the date on which he ceased to be a member.

Special cases

122 Share warrants

(1) On the issue of a share warrant the company must–

(a) enter in the register of members–

(i) the fact of the issue of the warrant,

(ii) a statement of the shares included in the warrant, distinguishing each share by its number so long as the share has a number, and

(iii) the date of the issue of the warrant,

and

(b) amend the register, if necessary, so that no person is named on the register as the holder of the shares specified in the warrant.

(2) Until the warrant is surrendered, the particulars specified in subsection (1)(a) are deemed to be those required by this Act to be entered in the register of members.

(3) The bearer of a share warrant may, if the articles of the company so provide, be deemed a member of the company within the meaning of this Act, either to the full extent or for any purposes defined in the articles.

(4) Subject to the company´s articles, the bearer of a share warrant is entitled, on surrendering it for cancellation, to have his name entered as a member in the register of members.

(5) The company is responsible for any loss incurred by any person by reason of the company entering in the register the name of a bearer of a share warrant in respect of the shares specified in it without the warrant being surrendered and cancelled.

(6) On the surrender of a share warrant, the date of the surrender must be entered in the register.

123 Single member companies

(1) If a limited company is formed under this Act with only one member there shall be entered in the company´s register of members, with the name and address of the sole member, a statement that the company has only one member.

(2) If the number of members of a limited company falls to one, or if an unlimited company with only one member becomes a limited company on re-registration, there shall upon the occurrence of that event be entered in the company´s register of members, with the name and address of the sole member–

(a) a statement that the company has only one member, and

(b) the date on which the company became a company having only one member.

(3) If the membership of a limited company increases from one to two or more members, there shall upon the occurrence of that event be entered in the company´s register of members, with the name and address of the person who was formerly the sole member–

(a) a statement that the company has ceased to have only one member, and

(b) the date on which that event occurred.

(4) If a company makes default in complying with this section, an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

(5) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 3 on the standard scale.

124 Company holding its own shares as treasury shares

(1) Where a company purchases its own shares in circumstances in which section 724 (treasury shares) applies–

(a) the requirements of section 113 (register of members) need not be complied with if the company cancels all of the shares forthwith after the purchase, and

(b) if the company does not cancel all of the shares forthwith after the purchase, any share that is so cancelled shall be disregarded for the purposes of that section.

(2) Subject to subsection (1), where a company holds shares as treasury shares the company must be entered in the register as the member holding those shares.

Supplementary

125 Power of court to rectify register

(1) If–

(a) the name of any person is, without sufficient cause, entered in or omitted from a company´s register of members, or

(b) default is made or unnecessary delay takes place in entering on the register the fact of any person having ceased to be a member,

the person aggrieved, or any member of the company, or the company, may apply to the court for rectification of the register.

(2) The court may either refuse the application or may order rectification of the register and payment by the company of any damages sustained by any party aggrieved.

(3) On such an application the court may decide any question relating to the title of a person who is a party to the application to have his name entered in or omitted from the register, whether the question arises between members or alleged members, or between members or alleged members on the one hand and the company on the other hand, and generally may decide any question necessary or expedient to be decided for rectification of the register.

(4) In the case of a company required by this Act to send a list of its members to the registrar of companies, the court, when making an order for rectification of the register, shall by its order direct notice of the rectification to be given to the registrar.

126 Trusts not to be entered on register

No notice of any trust, expressed, implied or constructive, shall be entered on the register of members of a company registered in England and Wales or Northern Ireland, or be receivable by the registrar.

127 Register to be evidence

The register of members is prima facie evidence of any matters which are by this Act directed or authorised to be inserted in it.

128 Time limit for claims arising from entry in register

(1) Liability incurred by a company–

(a) from the making or deletion of an entry in the register of members, or

(b) from a failure to make or delete any such entry,

is not enforceable more than ten years after the date on which the entry was made or deleted or, as the case may be, the failure first occurred.

(2) This is without prejudice to any lesser period of limitation (and, in Scotland, to any rule that the obligation giving rise to the liability prescribes before the expiry of that period).

Chapter 3 Overseas branch registers

129 Overseas branch registers

(1) A company having a share capital may, if it transacts business in a country or territory to which this Chapter applies, cause to be kept there a branch register of members resident there (an "overseas branch register").

(2) This Chapter applies to–

(a) any part of Her Majesty´s dominions outside the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, and

(b) the countries or territories listed below.

Bangladesh Malaysia
Cyprus Malta
Dominica Nigeria
The Gambia Pakistan
Ghana Seychelles
Guyana Sierra Leone
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People´s Republic of China Singapore
India South Africa
Ireland Sri Lanka
Kenya Swaziland
Kiribati Trinidad and Tobago
Lesotho Uganda
Malawi Zimbabwe

(3) The Secretary of State may make provision by regulations as to the circumstances in which a company is to be regarded as keeping a register in a particular country or territory.

(4) Regulations under this section are subject to negative resolution procedure.

(5) References–

(a) in any Act or instrument (including, in particular, a company´s articles) to a dominion register, or

(b) in articles registered before 1st November 1929 to a colonial register,

are to be read (unless the context otherwise requires) as a reference to an overseas branch register kept under this section.

130 Notice of opening of overseas branch register

(1) A company that begins to keep an overseas branch register must give notice to the registrar within 14 days of doing so, stating the country or territory in which the register is kept.

(2) If default is made in complying with subsection (1), an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

(3) A person guilty of an offence under subsection (2) is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 3 on the standard scale.

131 Keeping of overseas branch register

(1) An overseas branch register is regarded as part of the company´s register of members ("the main register").

(2) The Secretary of State may make provision by regulations modifying any provision of Chapter 2 (register of members) as it applies in relation to an overseas branch register.

(3) Regulations under this section are subject to negative resolution procedure.

(4) Subject to the provisions of this Act, a company may by its articles make such provision as it thinks fit as to the keeping of overseas branch registers.

132 Register or duplicate to be kept available for inspection in UK

(1) A company that keeps an overseas branch register must keep available for inspection–

(a) the register, or

(b) a duplicate of the register duly entered up from time to time,

at the place in the United Kingdom where the company´s main register is kept available for inspection.

(2) Any such duplicate is treated for all purposes of this Act as part of the main register.

(3) If default is made in complying with subsection (1), an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

(4) A person guilty of an offence under subsection (3) is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 3 on the standard scale.

133 Transactions in shares registered in overseas branch register

(1) Shares registered in an overseas branch register must be distinguished from those registered in the main register.

(2) No transaction with respect to shares registered in an overseas branch register may be registered in any other register.

(3) An instrument of transfer of a share registered in an overseas branch register–

(a) is regarded as a transfer of property situated outside the United Kingdom, and

(b) unless executed in a part of the United Kingdom, is exempt from stamp duty.

134 Jurisdiction of local courts

(1) A competent court in a country or territory where an overseas branch register is kept may exercise the same jurisdiction as is exercisable by a court in the United Kingdom–

(a) to rectify the register (see section 125), or

(b) in relation to a request for inspection or a copy of the register (see section 117).

(2) The offences–

(a) of refusing inspection or failing to provide a copy of the register (see section 118), and

(b) of making a false, misleading or deceptive statement in a request for inspection or a copy (see section 119),

may be prosecuted summarily before any tribunal having summary criminal jurisdiction in the country or territory where the register is kept.

(3) This section extends only to those countries and territories to which paragraph 3 of Schedule 14 to the Companies Act 1985 (c. 6) (which made similar provision) extended immediately before the coming into force of this Chapter.

135 Discontinuance of overseas branch register

(1) A company may discontinue an overseas branch register.

(2) If it does so all the entries in that register must be transferred–

(a) to some other overseas branch register kept in the same country or territory, or

(b) to the main register.

(3) The company must give notice to the registrar within 14 days of the discontinuance.

(4) If default is made in complying with subsection (3), an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

(5) A person guilty of an offence under subsection (4) is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 3 on the standard scale.

Chapter 4 Prohibition on subsidiary being member of its holding company

General prohibition

136 Prohibition on subsidiary being a member of its holding company

(1) Except as provided by this Chapter–

(a) a body corporate cannot be a member of a company that is its holding company, and

(b) any allotment or transfer of shares in a company to its subsidiary is void.

(2) The exceptions are provided for in–

137 Shares acquired before prohibition became applicable

(1) Where a body corporate became a holder of shares in a company–

(a) before the relevant date, or

(b) on or after that date and before the commencement of this Chapter in circumstances in which the prohibition in section 23(1) of the Companies Act 1985 or Article 33(1) of the Companies (Northern Ireland) Order 1986 (S.I. 1986/1032 (N.I. 6)) (or any corresponding earlier enactment), as it then had effect, did not apply, or

(c) on or after the commencement of this Chapter in circumstances in which the prohibition in section 136 did not apply,

it may continue to be a member of the company.

(2) The relevant date for the purposes of subsection (1)(a) is–

(a) 1st July 1948 in the case of a company registered in Great Britain, and

(b) 1st April 1961 in the case of a company registered in Northern Ireland.

(3) So long as it is permitted to continue as a member of a company by virtue of this section, an allotment to it of fully paid shares in the company may be validly made by way of capitalisation of reserves of the company.

(4) But, so long as the prohibition in section 136 would (apart from this section) apply, it has no right to vote in respect of the shares mentioned in subsection (1) above, or any shares allotted as mentioned in subsection (3) above, on a written resolution or at meetings of the company or of any class of its members.

Subsidiary acting as personal representative or trustee

138 Subsidiary acting as personal representative or trustee

(1) The prohibition in section 136 (prohibition on subsidiary being a member of its holding company) does not apply where the subsidiary is concerned only–

(a) as personal representative, or

(b) as trustee,

unless, in the latter case, the holding company or a subsidiary of it is beneficially interested under the trust.

(2) For the purpose of ascertaining whether the holding company or a subsidiary is so interested, there shall be disregarded–

(a) any interest held only by way of security for the purposes of a transaction entered into by the holding company or subsidiary in the ordinary course of a business that includes the lending of money;

(b) any interest within–

(c) any rights that the company or subsidiary has in its capacity as trustee, including in particular–

(i) any right to recover its expenses or be remunerated out of the trust property, and

(ii) any right to be indemnified out of the trust property for any liability incurred by reason of any act or omission in the performance of its duties as trustee.

139 Interests to be disregarded: residual interest under pension scheme or employees' share scheme

(1) Where shares in a company are held on trust for the purposes of a pension scheme or employees' share scheme, there shall be disregarded for the purposes of section 138 any residual interest that has not vested in possession.

(2) A "residual interest" means a right of the company or subsidiary ("the residual beneficiary") to receive any of the trust property in the event of–

(a) all the liabilities arising under the scheme having been satisfied or provided for, or

(b) the residual beneficiary ceasing to participate in the scheme, or

(c) the trust property at any time exceeding what is necessary for satisfying the liabilities arising or expected to arise under the scheme.

(3) In subsection (2)–

(a) the reference to a right includes a right dependent on the exercise of a discretion vested by the scheme in the trustee or another person, and

(b) the reference to liabilities arising under a scheme includes liabilities that have resulted, or may result, from the exercise of any such discretion.

(4) For the purposes of this section a residual interest vests in possession–

(a) in a case within subsection (2)(a), on the occurrence of the event mentioned there (whether or not the amount of the property receivable pursuant to the right is ascertained);

(b) in a case within subsection (2)(b) or (c), when the residual beneficiary becomes entitled to require the trustee to transfer to him any of the property receivable pursuant to the right.

(5) In this section "pension scheme" means a scheme for the provision of benefits consisting of or including relevant benefits for or in respect of employees or former employees.

(6) In subsection (5)–

(a) "relevant benefits" means any pension, lump sum, gratuity or other like benefit given or to be given on retirement or on death or in anticipation of retirement or, in connection with past service, after retirement or death; and

(b) "employee" shall be read as if a director of a company were employed by it.

140 Interests to be disregarded: employer´s rights of recovery under pension scheme or employees' share scheme

(1) Where shares in a company are held on trust for the purposes of a pension scheme or employees' share scheme, there shall be disregarded for the purposes of section 138 any charge or lien on, or set-off against, any benefit or other right or interest under the scheme for the purpose of enabling the employer or former employer of a member of the scheme to obtain the discharge of a monetary obligation due to him from the member.

(2) In the case of a trust for the purposes of a pension scheme there shall also be disregarded any right to receive from the trustee of the scheme, or as trustee of the scheme to retain, an amount that can be recovered or retained, under section 61 of the Pension Schemes Act 1993 (c. 48) or section 57 of the Pension Schemes (Northern Ireland) Act 1993 (c. 49) (deduction of contributions equivalent premium from refund of scheme contributions) or otherwise, as reimbursement or partial reimbursement for any contributions equivalent premium paid in connection with the scheme under Part 3 of that Act.

(3) In this section "pension scheme" means a scheme for the provision of benefits consisting of or including relevant benefits for or in respect of employees or former employees.

(4) In this section "employer" and "employee" shall be read as if a director of a company were employed by it.

Subsidiary acting as dealer in securities

141 Subsidiary acting as authorised dealer in securities

(1) The prohibition in section 136 (prohibition on subsidiary being a member of its holding company) does not apply where the shares are held by the subsidiary in the ordinary course of its business as an intermediary.

(2) For this purpose a person is an intermediary if he–

(a) carries on a bona fide business of dealing in securities,

(b) is a member of or has access to a regulated market, and

(c) does not carry on an excluded business.

(3) The following are excluded businesses–

(a) a business that consists wholly or mainly in the making or managing of investments;

(b) a business that consists wholly or mainly in, or is carried on wholly or mainly for the purposes of, providing services to persons who are connected with the person carrying on the business;

(c) a business that consists in insurance business;

(d) a business that consists in managing or acting as trustee in relation to a pension scheme, or that is carried on by the manager or trustee of such a scheme in connection with or for the purposes of the scheme;

(e) a business that consists in operating or acting as trustee in relation to a collective investment scheme, or that is carried on by the operator or trustee of such a scheme in connection with and for the purposes of the scheme.

(4) For the purposes of this section–

(a) the question whether a person is connected with another shall be determined in accordance with section 839 of the Income and Corporation Taxes Act 1988 (c. 1);

(b) "collective investment scheme" has the meaning given in section 235 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (c. 8);

(c) "insurance business" means business that consists in the effecting or carrying out of contracts of insurance;

(d) "securities" includes–

(i) options,

(ii) futures, and

(iii) contracts for differences,

and rights or interests in those investments;

(e) "trustee" and "the operator" in relation to a collective investment scheme shall be construed in accordance with section 237(2) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (c. 8).

(5) Expressions used in this section that are also used in the provisions regulating activities under the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 have the same meaning here as they do in those provisions.

See section 22 of that Act, orders made under that section and Schedule 2 to that Act.

142 Protection of third parties in other cases where subsidiary acting as dealer in securities

(1) This section applies where–

(a) a subsidiary that is a dealer in securities has purportedly acquired shares in its holding company in contravention of the prohibition in section 136, and

(b) a person acting in good faith has agreed, for value and without notice of the contravention, to acquire shares in the holding company–

(i) from the subsidiary, or

(ii) from someone who has purportedly acquired the shares after their disposal by the subsidiary.

(2) A transfer to that person of the shares mentioned in subsection (1)(a) has the same effect as it would have had if their original acquisition by the subsidiary had not been in contravention of the prohibition.

Supplementary

143 Application of provisions to companies not limited by shares

In relation to a company other than a company limited by shares, the references in this Chapter to shares shall be read as references to the interest of its members as such, whatever the form of that interest.

144 Application of provisions to nominees

The provisions of this Chapter apply to a nominee acting on behalf of a subsidiary as to the subsidiary itself.

Part 9 Exercise of members' rights

Effect of provisions in company´s articles

145 Effect of provisions of articles as to enjoyment or exercise of members' rights

(1) This section applies where provision is made by a company´s articles enabling a member to nominate another person or persons as entitled to enjoy or exercise all or any specified rights of the member in relation to the company.

(2) So far as is necessary to give effect to that provision, anything required or authorised by any provision of the Companies Acts to be done by or in relation to the member shall instead be done, or (as the case may be) may instead be done, by or in relation to the nominated person (or each of them) as if he were a member of the company.

(3) This applies, in particular, to the rights conferred by–

(a) sections 291 and 293 (right to be sent proposed written resolution);

(b) section 292 (right to require circulation of written resolution);

(c) section 303 (right to require directors to call general meeting);

(d) section 310 (right to notice of general meetings);

(e) section 314 (right to require circulation of a statement);

(f) section 324 (right to appoint proxy to act at meeting);

(g) section 338 (right to require circulation of resolution for AGM of public company); and

(h) section 423 (right to be sent a copy of annual accounts and reports).

(4) This section and any such provision as is mentioned in subsection (1)–

(a) do not confer rights enforceable against the company by anyone other than the member, and

(b) do not affect the requirements for an effective transfer or other disposition of the whole or part of a member´s interest in the company.

Information rights

146 Traded companies: nomination of persons to enjoy information rights

(1) This section applies to a company whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market.

(2) A member of such a company who holds shares on behalf of another person may nominate that person to enjoy information rights.

(3) "Information rights" means–

(a) the right to receive a copy of all communications that the company sends to its members generally or to any class of its members that includes the person making the nomination, and

(b) the rights conferred by–

(i) section 431 or 432 (right to require copies of accounts and reports), and

(ii) section 1145 (right to require hard copy version of document or information provided in another form).

(4) The reference in subsection (3)(a) to communications that a company sends to its members generally includes the company´s annual accounts and reports.

For the application of section 426 (option to provide summary financial statement) in relation to a person nominated to enjoy information rights, see subsection (5) of that section.

(5) A company need not act on a nomination purporting to relate to certain information rights only.

147 Information rights: form in which copies to be provided

(1) This section applies as regards the form in which copies are to be provided to a person nominated under section 146 (nomination of person to enjoy information rights).

(2) If the person to be nominated wishes to receive hard copy communications, he must–

(a) request the person making the nomination to notify the company of that fact, and

(b) provide an address to which such copies may be sent.

This must be done before the nomination is made.

(3) If having received such a request the person making the nomination–

(a) notifies the company that the nominated person wishes to receive hard copy communications, and

(b) provides the company with that address,

the right of the nominated person is to receive hard copy communications accordingly.

(4) This is subject to the provisions of Parts 3 and 4 of Schedule 5 (communications by company) under which the company may take steps to enable it to communicate in electronic form or by means of a website.

(5) If no such notification is given (or no address is provided), the nominated person is taken to have agreed that documents or information may be sent or supplied to him by the company by means of a website.

(6) That agreement–

(a) may be revoked by the nominated person, and

(b) does not affect his right under section 1145 to require a hard copy version of a document or information provided in any other form.

148 Termination or suspension of nomination

(1) The following provisions have effect in relation to a nomination under section 146 (nomination of person to enjoy information rights).

(2) The nomination may be terminated at the request of the member or of the nominated person.

(3) The nomination ceases to have effect on the occurrence in relation to the member or the nominated person of any of the following–

(a) in the case of an individual, death or bankruptcy;

(b) in the case of a body corporate, dissolution or the making of an order for the winding up of the body otherwise than for the purposes of reconstruction.

(4) In subsection (3)–

(a) the reference to bankruptcy includes–

(i) the sequestration of a person´s estate, and

(ii) a person´s estate being the subject of a protected trust deed (within the meaning of the Bankruptcy (Scotland) Act 1985 (c. 66)); and

(b) the reference to the making of an order for winding up is to–

(i) the making of such an order under the Insolvency Act 1986 (c. 45) or the Insolvency (Northern Ireland) Order 1989 (S.I. 1989/2405 (N.I. 19)), or

(ii) any corresponding proceeding under the law of a country or territory outside the United Kingdom.

(5) The effect of any nominations made by a member is suspended at any time when there are more nominated persons than the member has shares in the company.

(6) Where–

(a) the member holds different classes of shares with different information rights, and

(b) there are more nominated persons than he has shares conferring a particular right,

the effect of any nominations made by him is suspended to the extent that they confer that right.

(7) Where the company–

(a) enquires of a nominated person whether he wishes to retain information rights, and

(b) does not receive a response within the period of 28 days beginning with the date on which the company´s enquiry was sent,

the nomination ceases to have effect at the end of that period.

Such an enquiry is not to be made of a person more than once in any twelve-month period.

(8) The termination or suspension of a nomination means that the company is not required to act on it.

It does not prevent the company from continuing to do so, to such extent or for such period as it thinks fit.

149 Information as to possible rights in relation to voting

(1) This section applies where a company sends a copy of a notice of a meeting to a person nominated under section 146 (nomination of person to enjoy information rights)

(2) The copy of the notice must be accompanied by a statement that–

(a) he may have a right under an agreement between him and the member by whom he was nominated to be appointed, or to have someone else appointed, as a proxy for the meeting, and

(b) if he has no such right or does not wish to exercise it, he may have a right under such an agreement to give instructions to the member as to the exercise of voting rights.

(3) Section 325 (notice of meeting to contain statement of member´s rights in relation to appointment of proxy) does not apply to the copy, and the company must either–

(a) omit the notice required by that section, or

(b) include it but state that it does not apply to the nominated person.

150 Information rights: status of rights

(1) This section has effect as regards the rights conferred by a nomination under section 146 (nomination of person to enjoy information rights).

(2) Enjoyment by the nominated person of the rights conferred by the nomination is enforceable against the company by the member as if they were rights conferred by the company´s articles.

(3) Any enactment, and any provision of the company´s articles, having effect in relation to communications with members has a corresponding effect (subject to any necessary adaptations) in relation to communications with the nominated person.

(4) In particular–

(a) where under any enactment, or any provision of the company´s articles, the members of a company entitled to receive a document or information are determined as at a date or time before it is sent or supplied, the company need not send or supply it to a nominated person–

(i) whose nomination was received by the company after that date or time, or

(ii) if that date or time falls in a period of suspension of his nomination; and

(b) where under any enactment, or any provision of the company´s articles, the right of a member to receive a document or information depends on the company having a current address for him, the same applies to any person nominated by him.

(5) The rights conferred by the nomination–

(a) are in addition to the rights of the member himself, and

(b) do not affect any rights exercisable by virtue of any such provision as is mentioned in section 145 (provisions of company´s articles as to enjoyment or exercise of members' rights).

(6) A failure to give effect to the rights conferred by the nomination does not affect the validity of anything done by or on behalf of the company.

(7) References in this section to the rights conferred by the nomination are to–

(a) the rights referred to in section 146(3) (information rights), and

(b) where applicable, the rights conferred by section 147(3) (right to hard copy communications) and section 149 (information as to possible voting rights).

151 Information rights: power to amend

(1) The Secretary of State may by regulations amend the provisions of sections 146 to 150 (information rights) so as to–

(a) extend or restrict the classes of companies to which section 146 applies,

(b) make other provision as to the circumstances in which a nomination may be made under that section, or

(c) extend or restrict the rights conferred by such a nomination.

(2) The regulations may make such consequential modifications of any other provisions of this Part, or of any other enactment, as appear to the Secretary of State to be necessary.

(3) Regulations under this section are subject to affirmative resolution procedure.

Exercise of rights where shares held on behalf of others

152 Exercise of rights where shares held on behalf of others: exercise in different ways

(1) Where a member holds shares in a company on behalf of more than one person–

(a) rights attached to the shares, and

(b) rights under any enactment exercisable by virtue of holding the shares,

need not all be exercised, and if exercised, need not all be exercised in the same way.

(2) A member who exercises such rights but does not exercise all his rights, must inform the company to what extent he is exercising the rights.

(3) A member who exercises such rights in different ways must inform the company of the ways in which he is exercising them and to what extent they are exercised in each way.

(4) If a member exercises such rights without informing the company–

(a) that he is not exercising all his rights, or

(b) that he is exercising his rights in different ways,

the company is entitled to assume that he is exercising all his rights and is exercising them in the same way.

153 Exercise of rights where shares held on behalf of others: members' requests

(1) This section applies for the purposes of–

(a) section 314 (power to require circulation of statement),

(b) section 338 (public companies: power to require circulation of resolution for AGM),

(c) section 342 (power to require independent report on poll), and

(d) section 527 (power to require website publication of audit concerns).

(2) A company is required to act under any of those sections if it receives a request in relation to which the following conditions are met–

(a) it is made by at least 100 persons;

(b) it is authenticated by all the persons making it;

(c) in the case of any of those persons who is not a member of the company, it is accompanied by a statement–

(i) of the full name and address of a person ("the member") who is a member of the company and holds shares on behalf of that person,

(ii) that the member is holding those shares on behalf of that person in the course of a business,

(iii) of the number of shares in the company that the member holds on behalf of that person,

(iv) of the total amount paid up on those shares,

(v) that those shares are not held on behalf of anyone else or, if they are, that the other person or persons are not among the other persons making the request,

(vi) that some or all of those shares confer voting rights that are relevant for the purposes of making a request under the section in question, and

(vii) that the person has the right to instruct the member how to exercise those rights;

(d) in the case of any of those persons who is a member of the company, it is accompanied by a statement–

(i) that he holds shares otherwise than on behalf of another person, or

(ii) that he holds shares on behalf of one or more other persons but those persons are not among the other persons making the request;

(e) it is accompanied by such evidence as the company may reasonably require of the matters mentioned in paragraph (c) and (d);

(f) the total amount of the sums paid up on–

(i) shares held as mentioned in paragraph (c), and

(ii) shares held as mentioned in paragraph (d),

divided by the number of persons making the request, is not less than £100;

(g) the request complies with any other requirements of the section in question as to contents, timing and otherwise.

Part 10 A company´s directors

Chapter 1 Appointment and removal of directors

Requirement to have directors

154 Companies required to have directors

(1) A private company must have at least one director.

(2) A public company must have at least two directors.

155 Companies required to have at least one director who is a natural person

(1) A company must have at least one director who is a natural person.

(2) This requirement is met if the office of director is held by a natural person as a corporation sole or otherwise by virtue of an office.

156 Direction requiring company to make appointment

(1) If it appears to the Secretary of State that a company is in breach of–

the Secretary of State may give the company a direction under this section.

(2) The direction must specify–

(a) the statutory requirement the company appears to be in breach of,

(b) what the company must do in order to comply with the direction, and

(c) the period within which it must do so.

That period must be not less than one month or more than three months after the date on which the direction is given.

(3) The direction must also inform the company of the consequences of failing to comply.

(4) Where the company is in breach of section 154 or 155 it must comply with the direction by–

(a) making the necessary appointment or appointments, and

(b) giving notice of them under section 167,

before the end of the period specified in the direction.

(5) If the company has already made the necessary appointment or appointments (or so far as it has done so), it must comply with the direction by giving notice of them under section 167 before the end of the period specified in the direction.

(6) If a company fails to comply with a direction under this section, an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

For this purpose a shadow director is treated as an officer of the company.

(7) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 5 on the standard scale.

Appointment

157 Minimum age for appointment as director

(1) A person may not be appointed a director of a company unless he has attained the age of 16 years.

(2) This does not affect the validity of an appointment that is not to take effect until the person appointed attains that age.

(3) Where the office of director of a company is held by a corporation sole, or otherwise by virtue of another office, the appointment to that other office of a person who has not attained the age of 16 years is not effective also to make him a director of the company until he attains the age of 16 years.

(4) An appointment made in contravention of this section is void.

(5) Nothing in this section affects any liability of a person under any provision of the Companies Acts if he–

(a) purports to act as director, or

(b) acts as a shadow director,

although he could not, by virtue of this section, be validly appointed as a director.

(6) This section has effect subject to section 158 (power to provide for exceptions from minimum age requirement).

158 Power to provide for exceptions from minimum age requirement

(1) The Secretary of State may make provision by regulations for cases in which a person who has not attained the age of 16 years may be appointed a director of a company.

(2) The regulations must specify the circumstances in which, and any conditions subject to which, the appointment may be made.

(3) If the specified circumstances cease to obtain, or any specified conditions cease to be met, a person who was appointed by virtue of the regulations and who has not since attained the age of 16 years ceases to hold office.

(4) The regulations may make different provision for different parts of the United Kingdom.

This is without prejudice to the general power to make different provision for different cases.

(5) Regulations under this section are subject to negative resolution procedure.

159 Existing under-age directors

(1) This section applies where–

(a) a person appointed a director of a company before section 157 (minimum age for appointment as director) comes into force has not attained the age of 16 when that section comes into force, or

(b) the office of director of a company is held by a corporation sole, or otherwise by virtue of another office, and the person appointed to that other office has not attained the age of 16 years when that section comes into force,

and the case is not one excepted from that section by regulations under section 158.

(2) That person ceases to be a director on section 157 coming into force.

(3) The company must make the necessary consequential alteration in its register of directors but need not give notice to the registrar of the change.

(4) If it appears to the registrar (from other information) that a person has ceased by virtue of this section to be a director of a company, the registrar shall note that fact on the register.

160 Appointment of directors of public company to be voted on individually

(1) At a general meeting of a public company a motion for the appointment of two or more persons as directors of the company by a single resolution must not be made unless a resolution that it should be so made has first been agreed to by the meeting without any vote being given against it.

(2) A resolution moved in contravention of this section is void, whether or not its being so moved was objected to at the time.

But where a resolution so moved is passed, no provision for the automatic reappointment of retiring directors in default of another appointment applies.

(3) For the purposes of this section a motion for approving a person´s appointment, or for nominating a person for appointment, is treated as a motion for his appointment.

(4) Nothing in this section applies to a resolution amending the company´s articles.

161 Validity of acts of directors

(1) The acts of a person acting as a director are valid notwithstanding that it is afterwards discovered–

(a) that there was a defect in his appointment;

(b) that he was disqualified from holding office;

(c) that he had ceased to hold office;

(d) that he was not entitled to vote on the matter in question.

(2) This applies even if the resolution for his appointment is void under section 160 (appointment of directors of public company to be voted on individually).

Register of directors, etc

162 Register of directors

(1) Every company must keep a register of its directors.

(2) The register must contain the required particulars (see sections 163, 164 and 166) of each person who is a director of the company.

(3) The register must be kept available for inspection–

(a) at the company´s registered office, or

(b) at a place specified in regulations under section 1136.

(4) The company must give notice to the registrar–

(a) of the place at which the register is kept available for inspection, and

(b) of any change in that place,

unless it has at all times been kept at the company´s registered office.

(5) The register must be open to the inspection–

(a) of any member of the company without charge, and

(b) of any other person on payment of such fee as may be prescribed.

(6) If default is made in complying with subsection (1), (2) or (3) or if default is made for 14 days in complying with subsection (4), or if an inspection required under subsection (5) is refused, an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

For this purpose a shadow director is treated as an officer of the company.

(7) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 5 on the standard scale.

(8) In the case of a refusal of inspection of the register, the court may by order compel an immediate inspection of it.

163 Particulars of directors to be registered: individuals

(1) A company´s register of directors must contain the following particulars in the case of an individual–

(a) name and any former name;

(b) a service address;

(c) the country or state (or part of the United Kingdom) in which he is usually resident;

(d) nationality;

(e) business occupation (if any);

(f) date of birth.

(2) For the purposes of this section "name" means a person´s Christian name (or other forename) and surname, except that in the case of–

(a) a peer, or

(b) an individual usually known by a title,

the title may be stated instead of his Christian name (or other forename) and surname or in addition to either or both of them.

(3) For the purposes of this section a "former name" means a name by which the individual was formerly known for business purposes.

Where a person is or was formerly known by more than one such name, each of them must be stated.

(4) It is not necessary for the register to contain particulars of a former name in the following cases–

(a) in the case of a peer or an individual normally known by a British title, where the name is one by which the person was known previous to the adoption of or succession to the title;

(b) in the case of any person, where the former name–

(i) was changed or disused before the person attained the age of 16 years, or

(ii) has been changed or disused for 20 years or more.

(5) A person´s service address may be stated to be "The company´s registered office".

164 Particulars of directors to be registered: corporate directors and firms

A company´s register of directors must contain the following particulars in the case of a body corporate, or a firm that is a legal person under the law by which it is governed–

(a) corporate or firm name;

(b) registered or principal office;

(c) in the case of an EEA company to which the First Company Law Directive (68/151/EEC) applies, particulars of–

(i) the register in which the company file mentioned in Article 3 of that Directive is kept (including details of the relevant state), and

(ii) the registration number in that register;

(d) in any other case, particulars of–

(i) the legal form of the company or firm and the law by which it is governed, and

(ii) if applicable, the register in which it is entered (including details of the state) and its registration number in that register.

165 Register of directors' residential addresses

(1) Every company must keep a register of directors' residential addresses.

(2) The register must state the usual residential address of each of the company´s directors.

(3) If a director´s usual residential address is the same as his service address (as stated in the company´s register of directors), the register of directors' residential addresses need only contain an entry to that effect.

This does not apply if his service address is stated to be "The company´s registered office".

(4) If default is made in complying with this section, an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

For this purpose a shadow director is treated as an officer of the company.

(5) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 5 on the standard scale.

(6) This section applies only to directors who are individuals, not where the director is a body corporate or a firm that is a legal person under the law by which it is governed.

166 Particulars of directors to be registered: power to make regulations

(1) The Secretary of State may make provision by regulations amending–

so as to add to or remove items from the particulars required to be contained in a company´s register of directors or register of directors' residential addresses.

(2) Regulations under this section are subject to affirmative resolution procedure.

167 Duty to notify registrar of changes

(1) A company must, within the period of 14 days from–

(a) a person becoming or ceasing to be a director, or

(b) the occurrence of any change in the particulars contained in its register of directors or its register of directors' residential addresses,

give notice to the registrar of the change and of the date on which it occurred.

(2) Notice of a person having become a director of the company must–

(a) contain a statement of the particulars of the new director that are required to be included in the company´s register of directors and its register of directors' residential addresses, and

(b) be accompanied by a consent, by that person, to act in that capacity.

(3) Where–

(a) a company gives notice of a change of a director´s service address as stated in the company´s register of directors, and

(b) the notice is not accompanied by notice of any resulting change in the particulars contained in the company´s register of directors' residential addresses,

the notice must be accompanied by a statement that no such change is required.

(4) If default is made in complying with this section, an offence is committed by–

(a) the company, and

(b) every officer of the company who is in default.

For this purpose a shadow director is treated as an officer of the company.

(5) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine not exceeding one-tenth of level 5 on the standard scale.

Removal

168 Resolution to remove director

(1) A company may by ordinary resolution at a meeting remove a director before the expiration of his period of office, notwithstanding anything in any agreement between it and him.

(2) Special notice is required of a resolution to remove a director under this section or to appoint somebody instead of a director so removed at the meeting at which he is removed.

(3) A vacancy created by the removal of a director under this section, if not filled at the meeting at which he is removed, may be filled as a casual vacancy.

(4) A person appointed director in place of a person removed under this section is treated, for the purpose of determining the time at which he or any other director is to retire, as if he had become director on the day on which the person in whose place he is appointed was last appointed a director.

(5) This section is not to be taken–

(a) as depriving a person removed under it of compensation or damages payable to him in respect of the termination of his appointment as director or of any appointment terminating with that as director, or

(b) as derogating from any power to remove a director that may exist apart from this section.

169 Director´s right to protest against removal

(1) On receipt of notice of an intended resolution to remove a director under section 168, the company must forthwith send a copy of the notice to the director concerned.

(2) The director (whether or not a member of the company) is entitled to be heard on the resolution at the meeting.

(3) Where notice is given of an intended resolution to remove a director under that section, and the director concerned makes with respect to it representations in writing to the company (not exceeding a reasonable length) and requests their notification to members of the company, the company shall, unless the representations are received by it too late for it to do so–

(a) in any notice of the resolution given to members of the company state the fact of the representations having been made; and

(b) send a copy of the representations to every member of the company to whom notice of the meeting is sent (whether before or after receipt of the representations by the company).

(4) If a copy of the representations is not sent as required by subsection (3) because received too late or because of the company´s default, the director may (without prejudice to his right to be heard orally) require that the representations shall be read out at the meeting.

(5) Copies of the representations need not be sent out and the representations need not be read out at the meeting if, on the application either of the company or of any other person who claims to be aggrieved, the court is satisfied that the rights conferred by this section are being abused.

(6) The court may order the company´s costs (in Scotland, expenses) on an application under subsection (5) to be paid in whole or in part by the director, notwithstanding that he is not a party to the application.

Chapter 2 General duties of directors

Introductory

170 Scope and nature of general duties

(1) The general duties specified in sections 171 to 177 are owed by a director of a company to the company.

(2) A person who ceases to be a director continues to be subject–

(a) to the duty in section 175 (duty to avoid conflicts of interest) as regards the exploitation of any property, information or opportunity of which he became aware at a time when he was a director, and

(b) to the duty in section 176 (duty not to accept benefits from third parties) as regards things done or omitted by him before he ceased to be a director.

To that extent those duties apply to a former director as to a director, subject to any necessary adaptations.

(3) The general duties are based on certain common law rules and equitable principles as they apply in relation to directors and have effect in place of those rules and principles as regards the duties owed to a company by a director.

(4) The general duties shall be interpreted and applied in the same way as common law rules or equitable principles, and regard shall be had to the corresponding common law rules and equitable principles in interpreting and applying the general duties.

(5) The general duties apply to shadow directors where, and to the extent that, the corresponding common law rules or equitable principles so apply.

The general duties

171 Duty to act within powers

A director of a company must–

(a) act in accordance with the company´s constitution, and

(b) only exercise powers for the purposes for which they are conferred.

172 Duty to promote the success of the company

(1) A director of a company must act in the way he considers, in good faith, would be most likely to promote the success of the company for the benefit of its members as a whole, and in doing so have regard (amongst other matters) to–

(a) the likely consequences of any decision in the long term,

(b) the interests of the company´s employees,

(c) the need to foster the company´s business relationships with suppliers, customers and others,

(d) the impact of the company´s operations on the community and the environment,

(e) the desirability of the company maintaining a reputation for high standards of business conduct, and

(f) the need to act fairly as between members of the company.

(2) Where or to the extent that the purposes of the company consist of or include purposes other than the benefit of its members, subsection (1) has effect as if the reference to promoting the success of the company for the benefit of its members were to achieving those purposes.

(3) The duty imposed by this section has effect subject to any enactment or rule of law requiring directors, in certain circumstances, to consider or act in the interests of creditors of the company.

173 Duty to exercise independent judgment

(1) A director of a company must exercise independent judgment.

(2) This duty is not infringed by his acting–

(a) in accordance with an agreement duly entered into by the company that restricts the future exercise of discretion by its directors, or

(b) in a way authorised by the company´s constitution.

174 Duty to exercise reasonable care, skill and diligence

(1) A director of a company must exercise reasonable care, skill and diligence.

(2) This means the care, skill and diligence that would be exercised by a reasonably diligent person with–

(a) the general knowledge, skill and experience that may reasonably be expected of a person carrying out the functions carried out by the director in relation to the company, and

(b) the general knowledge, skill and experience that the director has.

175 Duty to avoid conflicts of interest

(1) A director of a company must avoid a situation in which he has, or can have, a direct or indirect interest that conflicts, or possibly may conflict, with the interests of the company.

(2) This applies in particular to the exploitation of any property, information or opportunity (and it is immaterial whether the company could take advantage of the property, information or opportunity).

(3) This duty does not apply to a conflict of interest arising in relation to a transaction or arrangement with the company.

(4) This duty is not infringed–

(a) if the situation cannot reasonably be regarded as likely to give rise to a conflict of interest; or

(b) if the matter has been authorised by the directors.

(5) Authorisation may be given by the directors–